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Table 4 Association of preventive primary care, comorbidity and social factors on risk of ambulatory care sensitive infectious admissionsa

From: Impact of preventive primary care on children’s unplanned hospital admissions: a population-based birth cohort study of UK children 2000–2013

  Infant Preschool Primary school
(aged < 1 year) (aged 1–4 years) (aged 5–9 years)
HRb (95% CI) HRb (95% CI) HRb (95% CI)
Vaccine preventable admissions
 Incomplete vaccinationsc 4.41 (2.59–7.49) 6.62 (2.80 to 15.66) 19.98 (2.40–166.25)
 No development checkd 3.56 (2.64–4.81) 1.95 (3.66–1.04) No association
 Illness consultation ratee 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 1.15 (1.10–1.20) 1.26 (1.11–1.43)
 Prematurity No association No association No association
 Congenital conditions 1.74 (1.26–2.40) No association No association
 Deprivationf 5 vs. 1 2.11 (1.37–3.25) 2.27 (1.08–4.76) No association
Upper respiratory tract infection
 Incomplete vaccinationsc 1.62 (1.40–1.88) 1.58 (1.41–1.77) No association
 No development checkd 2.16 (2.05–2.27) 1.18 (1.12 to1.24) 1.15 (1.03–1.28)
 Illness consultation ratee 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 1.16 (1.16–1.17) 1.24 (1.23–1.25)
 Prematurity 1.62 (1.50–1.76) 1.32 (1.24–1.40) 1.41 (1.21–1.64)
 Congenital conditions 1.39 (1.32–1.48) 1.22 (1.17–1.27) 1.15 (1.03–1.28)
 Deprivationf 5 vs. 1 1.54 (1.44–1.65) 1.48 (1.41–1.56) 1.79 (1.60–2.00)
Lower respiratory tract infection
 Incomplete vaccinationsc 1.53 (1.40–1.68) 2.16 (1.77–2.64) No association
 No development checkd 2.60 (2.49–2.71) 1.29 (1.17–1.43) No association
 Illness consultation ratee 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 1.15 (1.15–1.16) No association
 Prematurity 2.24 (2.11–2.39) 1.87 (1.67–2.10) 1.82 (1.29–2.57)
 Congenital conditions 1.36 (1.30–1.43) 1.36 (1.25–1.48) 1.25 (1.23–1.28)
 Deprivationf 5 vs. 1 1.50 (1.42–1.60) 1.26 (1.15–1.39) No association
Gastroenteritis admissions
 Incomplete vaccinationsc 1.16 (0.99–1.35) 1.82 (1.58–2.09) No association
 No development checkd 2.02 (1.92–2.13) 1.29 (1.21–1.37) No association
 Illness consultation ratee 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 1.15 (1.15–1.16) 1.24 (1.23–1.26)
 Prematurity 1.28 (1.17–1.41) 1.19 (1.10–1.30) 1.35 (1.04–1.74)
 Congenital conditions 1.40 (1.32–1.49) 1.23 (1.16–1.30) No association
 Deprivationf 5 vs. 1 1.69 (1.58–1.82) 1.67 (1.57–1.78) 1.63 (1.34–1.98)
Urinary tract infection
 Incomplete vaccinationsc No association 2.01 (1.43–2.82) No association
 No development checkd 2.41 (2.17–2.68) 1.28 (1.09–1.50) No association
 Illness consultation ratee 1.00 (1.00–1.00) 1.15 (1.14–1.17) 1.27 (1.24–1.30)
 Prematurity 1.44 (1.21–1.71) No association No association
 Congenital conditions 1.35 (1.19–1.52) 1.42 (1.24–1.62) No association
 Deprivationf 5 vs. 1 No association 1.59 (1.35–1.87) 1.42 (1.04–1.95)
  1. aData is from a cohort of 319,780 children born between 01/01/2000 and 31/03/2013, registered with 363 Clinical Practice Research Datalink practices in England, with Hospital Episode Statistics linkage, and followed up until 31/12/2013
  2. bAdjusted hazard ratio and 95% confidence interval; hazard ratios have been adjusted for listed covariates as well as sex, maternal age and whether first child; covariates were added sequentially to the models, p values of < 0.05 were considered statistically significant
  3. cIn modelling admissions in infants, incomplete vaccination is a time updated variable; in children aged 1 and over, incomplete vaccination is less than three infant vaccinations
  4. dDid not complete infant development checks within primary care
  5. eAn illness consultation is a face-to-face consultation with a GP that is not for preventive care
  6. fIndex of multiple deprivation fifths (5 the most deprived, 1 least deprived)