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Table 2 Prevalence of comorbidities (95% confidence intervals) among participants with COPD aged 40–79 by race and ethnicity, U.S. NHANES 2007–2012 and Korea NHANES 2007–2015

From: Racial differences in comorbidity profile among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  U.S. NHANES Korea NHANES  
Non-Hispanic White (n = 944) Non-Hispanic Black (n = 324) Hispanica (n = 227) Korean (n = 3808) P value
Asthma 19.9 (16.5 to 23.7) 24.0 (19.4 to 29.3) 20.7 (14.3 to 29.0) 9.1 (8.0 to 10.4) < 0.001
Cardiovascular disease
 Hypertension 51.5 (47.4 to 55.7) 70.2 (64.0 to 75.6) 54.1 (46.4 to 61.5) 48.8 (46.8 to 50.8) < 0.001
 Dyslipidemia 65.5 (61.2 to 69.7) 53.9 (47.3 to 60.3) 57.2 (48.5 to 65.4) 44.8 (42.7 to 47.0) < 0.001
 Stroke 3.6 (2.6 to 4.8) 7.3 (4.6 to 11.3) 1.6 (0.5 to 5.3) 2.5 (2.0 to 3.1) 0.003
 Myocardial infarction 6.2 (4.7 to 8.1) 4.2 (2.6 to 6.6) 5.4 (3.3 to 8.8) 1.7 (1.2 to 2.3) < 0.001
Diabetes mellitus 13.3 (10.8 to 16.4) 23.3 (18.6 to 28.8) 23.1 (17.5 to 29.7) 18.4 (16.8 to 20.1) < 0.001
Anemia 4.4 (3.0 to 6.3) 16.4 (12.3 to 21.6) 9.2 (5.8 to 14.3) 6.6 (5.7 to 7.6) < 0.001
Musculoskeletal disease
 Osteoarthritis 40.1 (36.4 to 44.0) 38.0 (33.0 to 43.2) 31.2 (24.5 to 38.8) 14.9 (13.5 to 16.5) < 0.001
 Rheumatoid arthritis 6.3 (4.3 to 9.1) 11.9 (8.4 to 16.4) 7.9 (5.2 to 12.0) 2.2 (1.6 to 2.8) < 0.001
 Osteoporosis 13.6 (10.9 to 16.9) 9.1 (6.5 to 12.7) 9.9 (6.1 to 15.4) 3.3 (2.7 to 4.1) < 0.001
  1. aHispanic was defined as Mexican American or other Hispanic
  2. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey