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Table 3 Adjusted prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for comorbidities in participants with COPD aged 40–79, U.S. NHANES 2007–2012 and Korea NHANES 2007–2015a

From: Racial differences in comorbidity profile among patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  U.S. NHANES Korea NHANES
Non-Hispanic White (n = 944) Non-Hispanic Black (n = 324) Hispanicb (n = 227) Korean (n = 3808)
Asthma Reference 1.23 (0.92 to 1.65) 1.05 (0.72 to 1.53) 0.56 (0.43 to 0.72)
Cardiovascular disease
 Hypertension Reference 1.36 (1.23 to 1.51) 1.03 (0.89 to 1.20) 0.88 (0.81 to 0.95)
 Dyslipidemia Reference 0.83 (0.72 to 0.96) 0.86 (0.73 to 1.00) 0.68 (0.63 to 0.73)
 Stroke Reference 2.01 (1.16 to 3.47) 0.47 (0.14 to 1.61) 0.69 (0.45 to 1.06)
 Myocardial infarction Reference 0.66 (0.39 to 1.12) 0.86 (0.49 to 1.53) 0.21 (0.14 to 0.33)
Diabetes mellitus Reference 1.76 (1.34 to 2.31) 1.64 (1.18 to 2.29) 1.11 (0.90 to 1.38)
Anemia Reference 3.82 (2.42 to 6.04) 2.18 (1.23 to 3.86) 1.31 (0.90 to 1.91)
Musculoskeletal disease
 Osteoarthritis Reference 0.95 (0.82 to 1.10) 0.81 (0.65 to 1.01) 0.35 (0.30 to 0.40)
 Rheumatoid arthritis Reference 1.83 (1.16 to 2.89) 1.40 (0.85 to 2.31) 0.31 (0.20 to 0.50)
 Osteoporosis Reference 0.68 (0.45 to 1.03) 0.74 (0.46 to 1.20) 0.22 (0.16 to 0.32)
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, BMI group (underweight, normal, overweight, or obese using World Health Organization criteria for the U.S. population and Asian criteria for the Korean population), and smoking status (current, former, or never)
  2. bHispanic was defined as Mexican American or other Hispanic
  3. COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, NHANES National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey