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Table 1 Comparison of inclusion criteria, exclusion criteria and clinical predictors between the Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study (APHIRST) cohort and the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) guidelines

From: External validation of the Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries in children

Inclusion criteria
All children < 18 years, all GCS All children < 18 years with head injury within 24 h of trauma, GCS 9–15
Exclusion criteria
 Trivial facial injury only Prior imaging
 Referral from ER to external provider  
 Neuroimaging before transfer to site  
 Did not wait to be seen  
Predictor variables
 GCS 9–13 GCS 9–13
 GCS 14 GCS 14
 Positive focal neurology Focal neurological deficit
 Seizure in patient with no history of epilepsy Post-traumatic seizures
(Clinical signs of basal skull fracture) OR (suspicion of penetrating or depressed skull injury) Clinical signs of skull base fracture or depressed skull fracture
 LOC > 5 s LOC > 1 min
 Any bleeding disorder or anticoagulation therapy Anticoagulation or coagulation disorder
 Amnesia (antegrade or retrograde; > 5 min) Post-traumatic amnesia
 (Severe headache) OR (history of worsening headache) Severe/progressive headache
 Not acting normally per parent report Abnormal behaviour according to guardian
 Vomiting ≥ 2 episodes Vomiting ≥ 2 episodes
 Any or suspected LOC Suspected/brief LOC
 Shunt Shunt
 (Age < 2 and irritability on examination) OR (age < 2 and temporal or parietal hematoma) OR (age < 2 and large, boggy scalp hematoma) If age < 2 years, large, temporal or parietal scalp hematoma OR irritability
 Combination of at least two risk factors from the SNC predictors Multiple risk factors
  1. GCS Glasgow Come Scale, ER emergency room, LOC loss of consciousness