Skip to main content

Table 2 Patient characteristics in the entire Australasian Paediatric Head Injury Rules Study (APHIRST) cohort, the APHIRST comparison cohort and the patients eligible for the Scandinavian Neurotrauma Committee (SNC) guideline

From: External validation of the Scandinavian guidelines for management of minimal, mild and moderate head injuries in children

  APHIRST validation APHIRST comparison SNC
n = 20,137 n = 18,913 n = 19,007
DEMOGRAPHICS
 Mean age 5.7 (sd 4.7) 5.7 (sd 4.6) 5.7 (sd 4.6)
 < 2 years 5374 (26.7%) 5046 (26.7%) 5067 (26.7%)
 ≥ 2 years 14,763 (73.3%) 13,867 (73.3%) 13,940 (73.3%)
 Boys 12,828 (63.7%) 12,073 (63.8%) 12,136 (63.9%)
 Girls 7309 (36.3%) 6840 (36.2%) 6871 (36.1%)
Injury mechanism
 Fall 14,119 (70.1%) 13,337 (70.5%) 13,401 (70.5%)
 Motor vehicle incident 849 (4.2%) 745 (3.9%) 759 (4.0%)
 High-impact projetile or object 1320 (6.6%) 1228 (6.5%) 1232 (6.5%)
 Suspected non-accidental injury 112 (0.6%) 81 (0.4%) 85 (0.4%)
 High-energy/velocity trauma 1669 (8.3%) 1523 (8.1%) 1543 (8.1%)
Predictor examples
 GCS3–8 121 (0.6%)
 GCS 9–13 231 (1.2%) 132 (0.7%) 226 (1.2%)
 GCS 14 578 (2.9%) 567 (3.0%) 567 (3.0%)
 GCS 15 19,207 (95.4%) 18,214 (96.3%) 18,214 (95.8%)
 LOC 2707 (13.5%) 2468 (13.0%) 2506 (13.2%)
 Vomiting 3452 (17.1%) 3094 (16.4%) 3138 (16.5%)
 Headache 4127 (20.5%) 3785 (20.0%) 3810 (20.0%)
 Multiple risk factors 2597 (12.9%) 2324 (12.3%) 2359 (12.4%)
Outcomes
 Cranial CT 2106 (10.5%) 1691 (8.9%) 1760 (9.3%)
 Admission 4544 (22.6%) 4164 (22.0%) 4229 (22.2%)
 ER discharge 15,594 (77.4%) 14,749 (78.0%) 14,778 (77.8%)
 Neurosurgery 83 (0.4%) 24 (0.1%) 32 (0.2%)
 Death 15 (0.1%) 1 (< 0.01%) 1 (< 0.01%)
 Clinically important TBI (PECARN) 280 (1.4%) 160 (0.8%) 183 (1.0%)
 Clinically significant intracranial injury (CHALICE) 403 (2.0%) 251 (1.3%) 276 (1.5%)
  1. GCS Glasgow Come Scale, ER emergency room, LOC loss of consciousness, CT computed tomography, TBI traumatic brain injury, PECARN Paediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network, CHALICE Children’s Head Injury Algorithm for the Prediction of Important Clinical Events, NS neurosurgery, ciTBI clinically important traumatic brain injury, sd standard deviation