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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants by intervention group and baseline IL-6 level

From: Effect of 24-month physical activity on cognitive frailty and the role of inflammation: the LIFE randomized clinical trial

  Physical activity Health education
Higher IL-6 subgroupa(n = 321) Lower IL-6 subgroupa(n = 323) All
n = 644
Higher IL-6 subgroupa(n = 331) Lower IL-6 subgroupa(n = 323) All
n = 654
Age, years, mean (SD) 78.9 ± 5.3 78.2 ± 5.1 78.6 ± 5.2 79.1 ± 5.2 79.1 ± 5.3 79.1 ± 5.3
 ≥ 80 years 133 (41.4) 129 (39.9) 262 (40.7) 144 (43.5) 146 (45.2) 290 (44.3)
Women 203 (63.2) 217 (67.2) 420 (65.2) 204 (61.6) 232 (71.8) 436 (66.7)
Education
 ≤ High school 121 (37.7) 125 (38.8) 246 (38.3) 111 (33.6) 113 (35.1) 224 (34.4)
 College 136 (42.4) 121 (37.6) 257 (40.0) 136 (41.2) 129 (40.1) 265 (40.6)
 Post graduate 64 (19.9) 76 (23.6) 140 (21.8) 83 (25.2) 80 (24.8) 163 (25.0)
Ethnicity/race
 White 245 (76.3) 242 (74.9) 487 (75.6) 260 (78.5) 256 (79.3) 516 (78.9)
 African American 59 (18.4) 61 (18.9) 120 (18.6) 54 (16.3) 39 (12.1) 93 (14.2)
 others 17 (5.3) 20 (6.2) 37 (5.7) 17 (5.1) 28 (8.7) 45 (6.9)
Living alone 140 (43.6) 148 (45.8) 288 (44.7) 172 (52.0) 153 (47.4) 325 (49.7)
CES-D score, mean (SD) 8.0 ± 7.0 8.4 ± 8.0 8.2 ± 7.5 8.9 ± 8.0 8.7 ± 7.9 8.8 ± 7.9
Body mass index, kg/m2, mean (SD) 31.0 ± 6.0 29.4 ± 5.4 30.2 ± 5.7 31.8 ± 6.4 28.8 ± 5.4 30.3 ± 6.1
SPPB score, mean (SD) 7.4 ± 1.7 7.5 ± 1.5 7.4 ± 1.6 7.2 ± 1.6 7.4 ± 1.6 7.3 ± 1.6
 SPPB = 8 or 9 174 (54.2) 192 (59.4) 366 (56.8) 176 (53.2) 181 (56.0) 357 (54.6)
History of hypertension 243 (75.7) 215 (66.6) 458 (71.1) 246 (74.3) 222 (68.7) 468 (71.6)
History of diabetes 86 (26.8) 77 (23.8) 163 (25.3) 99 (29.9) 70 (21.7) 169 (25.8)
History of cardiovascular disease 27 (8.4) 17 (5.3) 44 (6.8) 32 (9.7) 19 (5.9) 51 (7.8)
History of stroke 29 (9.0) 21 (6.5) 50 (7.8) 17 (5.1) 25 (7.7) 42 (6.4)
  1. Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise. The 1298 participants who had baseline data on both cognitive frailty and IL-6 were included
  2. SD standard deviation, CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale, SPPB Short Physical Performance Battery, IL-6 interleukin-6
  3. aThe cutoff point for categorizing IL-6 subgroups was 3.31 pg/mL (median value) in both physical activity and health education groups