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Table 3 Association between genetically determined height and risks of diseases based on inverse-variance-based, MR-Egger and median-based approaches

From: Adult height and risk of 50 diseases: a combined epidemiological and genetic analysis

Disease Inverse-variance-based method p value intercept (MR-Egger) MR-Egger p value intercept (robust MR-Egger) Robust MR-Egger Simple median Weighted median Penalised weighted median
CAD 0.86 (0.82–0.90) 0.163 0.93 (0.84–1.03) 0.500 0.89 (0.80–1.00) 0.87 (0.83–0.92) 0.88 (0.83–0.93) 0.88 (0.83–0.93)
Hypertension 0.88 (0.85–0.91) 0.224 0.92 (0.86–0.99) 0.138 0.96 (0.88–1.04) 0.90 (0.88–0.93) 0.91 (0.88–0.93) 0.91 (0.88–0.93)
AF 1.33 (1.26–1.40) 0.444 1.39 (1.24–1.56) 0.436 1.40 (1.23–1.60) 1.36 (1.28–1.44) 1.34 (1.26–1.42) 1.34 (1.26–1.43)
VTE 1.15 (1.11–1.19) 0.147 1.23 (1.11–1.36) 0.434 1.18 (1.06–1.32) 1.14 (1.08–1.21) 1.18 (1.11–1.24) 1.16 (1.10–1.23)
GORD 0.94 (0.92–0.97) 0.595 0.93 (0.87–1.00) 0.695 0.94 (0.86–1.02) 0.96 (0.92–1.00) 0.95 (0.91–0.99) 0.96 (0.92–0.99)
Diaphragmatic hernia 0.91 (0.88–0.94) 0.516 0.88 (0.81–0.96) 0.813 0.91 (0.83–1.00) 0.94 (0.90–0.98) 0.93 (0.89–0.97) 0.93 (0.89–0.97)
IDD 1.14 (1.09–1.20) 0.041 1.29 (1.15–1.45) 0.198 1.22 (1.08–1.38) 1.14 (1.07–1.20) 1.13 (1.06–1.20) 1.12 (1.05–1.19)
Hip fracture 1.27 (1.17–1.39) 0.104 1.52 (1.20–1.92) 0.134 1.48 (1.17–1.87) 1.24 (1.08–1.42) 1.23 (1.07–1.42) 1.23 (1.07–1.41)
Vasculitis 1.20 (1.14–1.28) 0.139 1.33 (1.15–1.54) 0.240 1.32 (1.11–1.57) 1.21 (1.10–1.32) 1.22 (1.12–1.34) 1.22 (1.11–1.33)
Cancer overall 1.06 (1.04–1.08) 0.514 1.04 (0.99–1.10) 0.536 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 1.05 (1.02–1.09) 1.05 (1.02–1.08) 1.05 (1.02–1.08)
Colorectal cancer 1.11 (1.05–1.18) 0.234 1.02 (0.86–1.20) 0.173 0.99 (0.85–1.16) 1.10 (1.00–1.21) 1.06 (0.96–1.16) 1.04 (0.95–1.15)
Breast cancer 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 0.573 1.10 (0.98–1.23) 0.930 1.06 (0.94–1.19) 1.03 (0.97–1.10) 1.04 (0.98–1.11) 1.02 (0.96–1.09)
  1. Association is expressed as odds ratios per 1 standard deviation increase in genetically determined height and its 95% confidence interval
  2. CAD coronary artery disease, AF atrial fibrillation, VTE venous thromboembolism, GORD gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, IDD intervertebral disc disorder
  3. The intercept term in MR-Egger regression can be interpreted as an estimate of the average pleiotropic effect across the genetic variants, with a non-zero intercept indicative of directional pleiotropy. MR-Egger uses standard regression in the analysis, whilst robust MR-Egger uses robust regression that down-weights the influence of outliers. The median-based method calculates a median of the causal estimates across all SNPs. The simple method calculates the simple unweighted median, the weighted method calculates the median using the inverse-variance weights, and the penalised method calculates the median down-weighting heterogeneous variants