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Table 10 Associations between abnormal nutrient intakes and mortality across levels of frailty

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Nutrients Frailty index score
≤0.1 p value > 0.1 to 0.2 p value > 0.2 to 0.3 p value > 0.3 p value
HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
Energy Low 1.14 (0.74, 1.77) 0.554 1.00 (0.73, 1.35) 0.976 1.16 (0.83, 1.61) 0.384 1.55 (1.14, 2.10) 0.005*
Energy per weight Low 1.16 (0.72, 1.86) 0.547 0.87 (0.64, 1.18) 0.373 0.93 (0.69, 1.25) 0.632 1.36 (1.00, 1.86) 0.052
High 0.77 (0.40, 1.47) 0.427 1.11 (0.73, 1.68) 0.620 1.04 (0.63, 1.73) 0.868 1.38 (0.85, 2.25) 0.195
Protein Low 1.09 (0.64, 1.84) 0.758 0.93 (0.65, 1.32) 0.675 0.84 (0.61, 1.15) 0.266 0.93 (0.71, 1.22) 0.607
Protein per weight Low 0.90 (0.56, 1.45) 0.670 1.05 (0.76, 1.45) 0.765 0.80 (0.59, 1.09) 0.161 0.84 (0.62, 1.12) 0.238
Carbohydrate Low 1.25 (0.75, 2.11) 0.394 1.30 (0.92, 1.83) 0.134 1.25 (0.90, 1.74) 0.178 0.88 (0.66, 1.71) 0.367
Simple sugar High 1.02 (0.46, 2.26) 0.964 0.73 (0.45, 1.17) 0.189 0.92 (0.57, 1.48) 0.720 1.15 (0.77, 1.81) 0.505
Dietary fiber per energy Low 0.57 (0.32, 1.03) 0.064 1.42 (0.98, 2.26) 0.140 0.99 (0.66, 1.48) 0.941 0.89 (0.62, 1.27) 0.510
Percentage of fat Low 1.16 (0.31, 4.36) 0.822 0.62 (0.27, 1.43) 0.265 1.42 (0.91, 2.21) 0.335 0.56 (0.31, 1.02) 0.990
High 1.29 (0.61, 2.73) 0.509 0.68 (0.44, 1.04) 0.072 0.96 (0.76, 122) 0.121 1.049 (0.75, 1.48) 0.784
Percentage of saturated fat High 0.87 (0.58, 1.32) 0.523 1.27 (0.96, 1.67) 0.092 1.11 (0.85, 1.44) 0.450 0.97 (0.78, 1.21) 0.800
Cholesterol High 1.17 (0.74, 1.84) 0.502 1.03 (0.76, 1.39) 0.857 1.21 (0.89, 1.66) 0.225 1.08 (0.84, 1.40) 0.552
Vitamin A, RAE Low 1.47 (0.83, 2.59) 0.184 1.51 (1.03, 2.21) 0.033* 0.99 (0.71, 1.38) 0.935 1.03 (0.78, 1.37) 0.818
High 1.22 (0.16, 9.41) 0.849   2.01 (0.72, 5.63) 0.182  
Vitamin C Low 0.95 (0.62, 1.45) 0.814 1.26 (0.94, 1.67) 0.121 1.19 (0.90, 1.57) 0.223 1.23 (0.97, 1.56) 0.091
High     
Vitamin E Low   1.31 (0.62, 2.73) 0.478 1.20 (0.53, 2.74) 0.658 3.49 (1.15, 11.00) 0.033*
Vitamin K Low 1.13 (0.65, 1.97) 0.657 1.35 (0.92, 1.98) 0.121 1.06 (0.74, 1.51) 0.755 0.97 (0.72, 1.31) 0.842
Thiamin Low 1.61 (0.99, 2.60) 0.055 1.31 (0.95, 1.80) 0.095 1.17 (0.86, 1.58) 0.310 1.15 (0.89, 1.48) 0.288
Riboflavin Low 0.83 (0.45, 1.53) 0.548 0.93 (0.62, 1.40) 0.733 1.17 (0.83, 1.65) 0.361 1.00 (0.75, 1.32) 0.992
Niacin Low 1.15 (0.70, 1.91) 0.581 1.16 (0.83, 1.61) 0.388 1.05 (0.77, 1.43) 0.754 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 0.945
High 0.81 (0.39, 1.70) 0.580 1.10 (0.68, 1.77) 0.699 0.58 (0.32, 1.05) 0.074 1.37 (0.89, 2.11) 0.148
Pyridoxine Low 0.87 (0.55, 1.39) 0.566 0.96 (0.71, 1.31) 0.815 1.26 (0.95, 1.67) 0.106 1.03 (0.80, 1.32) 0.818
Folate Low 1.04 (0.64, 1.66) 0.885 1.37 (0.98, 1.91) 0.068 1.39 (1.01, 1.91) 0.042* 1.13 (0.84, 1.51) 0.413
High 1.97 (0.59, 6.57) 0.269 1.35 (0.53, 3.45) 0.526 1.00 (0.31, 3.21) 0.996 0.77 (0.19, 3.16) 0.714
Cobalamin Low 1.10 (0.68, 1.77) 0.695 1.09 (0.79, 1.49) 0.605 1.15 (0.86, 1.54) 0.351 0.94 (0.73, 1.21) 0.635
Calcium Low 1.20 (0.67, 2.14) 0.548 1.09 (0.73, 1.62) 0.679 1.06 (0.74, 1.53) 0.747 1.05 (0.74, 1.50) 0.773
High 0.74 (0.10, 5.69) 0.769 1.42 (0.34, 5.99) 0.629   
Phosphorous Low 0.67 (0.34, 1.33) 0.251 0.85 (0.56, 1.29) 0.446 1.03 (0.71, 1.49) 0.888 1.14 (0.85, 1.53) 0.380
High     
Magnesium Low 0.74 (0.41, 1.32) 0.307 1.49 (0.94, 2.36) 0.089 1.40 (0.86, 2.28) 0.179 1.11 (0.73, 1.69) 0.634
Iron Low 1.32 (0.75, 2.31) 0.338 1.09 (0.75, 1.60) 0.650 1.17 (0.81, 1.67) 0.402 1.06 (0.79, 1.42) 0.703
High   1.34 (0.42, 4.30) 0.620   
Zinc Low 1.04 (0.65, 1.67) 0.855 1.21 (0.89, 1.66) 0.228 0.90 (0.66, 1.23) 0.509 0.96 (0.74, 1.25) 0.761
High   2.47 (0.59, 10.41) 0.217   
Copper Low 1.24 (0.74, 2.06) 0.410 1.20 (0.87, 1.68) 0.270 1.25 (0.92, 1.71) 0.154 0.79 (0.60, 1.04) 0.098
High 6.35 (0.86, 46.98) 0.070    
Sodium Low 0.79 (0.37, 1.71) 0.550 1.04 (0.62, 1.72) 0.893 0.82 (0.47, 1.42) 0.475 0.96 (0.67, 1.38) 0.845
High 0.64 (0.38, 1.09) 0.099 0.84 (0.60, 1.17) 0.303 1.08 (0.79, 1.48) 0.609 1.13 (0.85, 1.48) 0.403
Potassium Low 0.83 (0.33, 2.08) 0.695 0.86 (0.45, 1.64) 0.646 1.18 (0.50, 2.80) 0.700 1.00 (0.43, 2.32) 0.996
Selenium Low 1.61 (0.93, 2.77) 0.088 1.03 (0.70, 1.52 0.885 1.05 (0.76, 1.47) 0.757 1.06 (0.80, 1.39) 0.700
High     
Caffeine High 1.07 (0.58, 1.98) 0.834 1.63 (1.09, 2.43) 0.016* 1.59 (0.97, 2.60) 0.064 0.61 (0.37, 0.99) 0.047*
Alcohol High 0.92 (0.49, 1.74) 0.805 1.17 (0.81, 1.74) 0.386 1.18 (0.76, 1.83) 0.465 0.72 (0.43, 1.22) 0.223
Linoleic acid Low 0.88 (0.54, 1.43) 0.599 1.55 (1.12, 2.16) 0.009* 0.81 (0.57, 1.13) 0.216 1.16 (0.87, 1.54) 0.312
α-Linolenic acid Low 1.12 (0.69, 1.83) 0.652 1.18 (0.86, 1.63) 0.311 0.84 (0.60, 1.16) 0.279 1.21 (0.91, 1.61) 0.193
Fish oil Low 0.82 (0.45, 1.50) 0.522 1.70 (1.00, 2.88) 0.048* 0.86 (0.57, 1.30) 0.466 1.04 (0.69, 1.57) 0.850
  1. RAE Retinol activity equivalents
  2. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, energy intake, educational level, marital status, employment status, smoking and study cohort except for energy, energy per weight and dietary fiber per energy which were not adjusted for energy intake
  3. – Results are not available due to low sample sizes and mortality rate, *p value < 0.05