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Table 11 Associations between abnormal anthropometric measurements and mortality across levels of frailty

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Anthropometric measurements Frailty index score
≤ 0.1 p value > 0.1 to 0.2 p value > 0.2 to 0.3 p value > 0.3 p value
HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
Body mass index Underweight 0.69 (0.09, 5.21) 0.723 0.88 (0.22, 3.61) 0.861 4.41 (2.23, 8.74) < 0.001* 3.80 (1.60, 9.03) 0.002*
Overweight 0.97 (0.61, 1.57) 0.915 0.88 (0.64, 1.21) 0.421 0.90 (0.65, 1.23) 0.499 0.72 (0.54, 0.98) 0.036*
Obese 0.91 (0.52, 1.60) 0.742 0.82 (0.56, 1.19) 0.293 0.77 (0.54, 1.11) 0.161 0.89 (0.66, 1.19) 0.424
Body weight change in past 1 year Loss > 10% 0.91 (0.41, 2.01) 0.812 1.66 (1.10, 2.50) 0.016* 1.95 (1.36, 2.79) < 0.001* 1.61 (1.21, 2.13) 0.001*
Gain > 10% 1.41 (0.66, 3.00) 0.380 1.66 (0.97, 2.85) 0.063 1.56 (0.98, 2.47) 0.061 1.35 (0.91, 2.01) 0.139
Waist circumference High 1.50 (0.88, 2.56) 0.135 0.80 (0.57, 1.11) 0.185 0.77 (0.55, 1.09) 0.146 0.70 (0.50, 0.98) 0.037*
Triceps skinfold Low 1.07 (0.53, 2.18) 0.842 1.83 (1.22, 2.74) 0.003* 2.73 (1.90, 3.94) < 0.001* 1.36 (0.93, 2.00) 0.113
High 1.16 (0.50, 2.71) 0.731 1.41 (0.85, 2.35) 0.184 0.74 (0.44, 1.25) 0.259 0.98 (0.64, 1.51) 0.924
Subscapular skinfold Low 1.10 (0.50, 2.45) 0.807 1.89 (1.29, 2.77) 0.001* 1.49 (0.98, 2.26) 0.060 1.46 (0.99, 2.15) 0.058
High 1.02 (0.41, 2.54) 0.970 0.78 (0.39, 1.54) 0.470 0.36 (0.13, 0.98) 0.046* 0.83 (0.41, 1.66) 0.589
  1. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, energy intake, educational level, marital status, employment status, smoking, and study cohort, *p value < 0.05