Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 12 Associations between abnormal blood tests and mortality across levels of frailty

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Blood tests Frailty index score
≤ 0.1 p value > 0.1 to 0.2 p value > 0.2 to 0.3 p value > 0.3 p value
HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI) HR (95%CI)
Total lymphocyte count Low 1.03 (0.63, 1.70) 0.908 1.61 (1.21, 2.15) 0.001* 1.26 (0.96, 1.65) 0.102 1.43 (1.14, 1.81) 0.002*
Haemoglobin Low 0.74 (0.23, 2.36) 0.609 1.41 (0.93, 2.15) 0.110 1.33 (0.98, 1.81) 0.064 1.45 (1.13, 1.86) 0.003*
High 0.70 (0.10, 5.09) 0.724 0.94 (0.23, 3.84) 0.934 3.04 (0.72, 12.76) 0.129  
Mean corpuscular volume Low 1.60 (0.38, 6.64) 0.519 0.92 (0.37, 2.28) 0.863 1.72 (0.74, 3.97) 0.208 1.07 (0.56, 2.04) 0.842
High 1.00 (0.24, 4.14) 0.999 1.19 (0.69, 2.03) 0.533 1.58 (1.02, 2.47) 0.043* 1.45 (0.99, 2.14) 0.059
Albumin Low 2.70 (0.63, 11.62) 0.183 2.66 (1.23, 5.74) 0.013* 1.88 (0.88, 4.02) 0.105 2.51 (1.74, 3.64) < 0.001*
Vitamin A Low      
High 0.33 (0.08, 1.34) 0.121 1.06 (0.66, 1.71) 0.795 0.74 (0.49, 1.10) 0.131 1.34 (1.02, 1.75) 0.035*
Vitamin C Low 0.98 (0.42, 2.29) 0.958 1.80 (1.19, 2.75) 0.006* 1.25 (0.76, 2.07) 0.376 1.61 (1.13, 2.30) 0.009*
High 0.69 (0.17, 2.83) 0.605 0.81 (3.94, 1.65) 0.554 1.02 (0.57, 1.85) 0.936 1.18 (0.72, 1.93) 0.520
Vitamin D Low 2.01 (1.32, 3.06) 0.001* 1.45 (1.10, 1.92) 0.009* 1.62 (1.23, 2.12) < 0.001* 1.38 (1.10, 1.73) 0.006*
High     
Pyridoxine Low 1.47 (0.87, 2.48) 0.151 2.11 (1.54, 2.89) < 0.001* 1.24 (0.90, 1.71) 0.192 1.31 (1.01, 1.70) 0.04*
Folate, RBC Low 0.92 (0.33, 2.55) 0.877 0.93 (0.43, 2.03) 0.863 1.27 (0.67, 2.41) 0.462 0.83 (0.39, 1.77) 0.630
Cobalamin Low 1.34 (0.49, 3.68) 0.572 1.14 (0.54, 2.43) 0.728 0.68 (0.34, 1.39) 0.294 0.97 (0.57, 1.64) 0.900
α-carotene Low 0.87 (0.46, 1.63) 0.657 1.58 (1.12, 2.23) 0.009* 1.31 (0.92, 1.85) 0.131 1.23 (0.95, 1.61) 0.121
High 0.78 (0.40, 1.53) 0.469 0.80 (0.48, 1.32) 0.382 0.80 (0.48, 1.33) 0.383 1.00 (0.62, 1.62) 0.997
β-carotene Low 1.04 (0.55, 1.99) 0.902 1.94 (1.33, 2.82) 0.001* 1.82 (1.26, 2.61) 0.001* 0.97 (0.71, 1.32) 0.854
High 0.92 (0.51, 1.67) 0.784 0.91 (0.60, 1.36) 0.636 0.91 (0.63, 1.31) 0.623 0.97 (0.69, 1.36) 0.846
β-cryptoxanthin Low 0.95 (0.49, 1.81) 0.867 1.71 (1.24, 2.36) 0.001* 1.34 (0.97, 1.84) 0.074 0.99 (0.76, 1.29) 0.951
High 1.05 (0.62, 1.80) 0.849 0.73 (0.45, 1.17) 0.194 0.98 (0.66, 1.46) 0.916 0.94 (0.62, 1.42) 0.768
Lutein/Zeaxanthin Low 0.73 (0.39, 1.36) 0.322 1.79 (1.33, 2.41) < 0.001* 1.72 (1.30, 2.29) < 0.001* 1.25 (0.99, 1.58) 0.055
High 1.09 (0.50, 2.40) 0.822 0.96 (0.51, 1.78) 0.891 1.20 (0.63, 2.30) 0.576 1.08 (0.62, 1.88) 0.772
Lycopene Low 1.08 (0.65, 1.79) 0.774 1.56 (1.16, 2.08) 0.003* 1.60 (1.22, 2.09) 0.001* 1.24 (0.98, 1.56) 0.075
High 1.52 (0.77, 3.00) 0.227 1.16 (0.60, 2.22) 0.661 1.91 (1.04, 3.52) 0.037* 1.02 (0.50, 2.08) 0.965
Iron, serum Low 0.78 (0.36, 1.69) 0.524 1.48 (0.98, 2.22) 0.061 1.41 (0.98, 2.03) 0.066 1.87 (1.46, 2.41) < 0.001*
High   0.27 (0.04, 1.90) 0.187   
Creatinine Low 2.54 (1.15, 5.62) 0.021 1.01 (0.49, 2.09) 0.974 1.87 (1.02, 3.41) 0.042* 1.89 (1.05, 3.42) 0.034*
High 2.46 (1.04, 5.78) 0.039 1.22 (0.80, 1.86) 0.363 1.04 (0.75, 1.45) 0.798 1.48 (1.15, 1.90) 0.002*
Total cholesterol High 1.05 (0.69, 1.59) 0.824 0.95 (0.72, 1.26) 0.740 0.84 (0.64, 1.10) 0.200 0.92 (0.73, 1.16) 0.458
Triglyceride High 1.33 (0.88, 2.02) 0.178 0.78 (0.58, 1.06) 0.116 0.95 (0.72, 1.26) 0.728 0.95 (0.75, 1.20) 0.676
HDL-c Low 1.50 (0.67, 2.32) 0.071 1.08 (0.79, 1.46) 0.639 0.93 (0.68, 1.28) 0.673 1.18 (0.94, 1.49) 0.158
LDL-c High 0.97 (0.51, 1.87) 0.936 0.93 (0.61, 1.41) 0.729 0.60 (0.36, 0.10) 0.050 1.20 (0.81, 1.77) 0.364
Glucose Low 1.99 (0.27, 14.73) 0.499 1.20 (0.38, 3.78) 0.758 0.44 (0.11, 1.81) 0.256 1.49 (0.77, 2.87) 0.236
High 1.34 (0.86, 2.09) 0.195 1.17 (0.89, 1.55) 0.263 1.09 (0.83, 1.42) 0.537 1.06 (0.85, 1.34) 0.593
Homocysteine High 1.19 (0.16, 8.69) 0.865 1.73 (0.76, 3.90) 0.190 1.41 (0.74, 2.69) 0.298 1.71 (1.13, 2.60) 0.011*
  1. HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, RBC red blood cell
  2. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, energy intake, educational level, marital status, employment status, smoking and study cohort
  3. – Results are not available due to low sample sizes and mortality rate, *p value < 0.05