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Table 2 Number of participants with abnormal range of daily nutrient intakes by frailty level

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Nutrients, N (%)* Frailty index score
≤ 0.1 N = 5119 > 0.1 to 0.2 N = 2009 > 0.2 to 0.3 N = 1014 > 0.3 N = 888
Energy (N = 8614) Low 2218 (44.4) 1157 (55.3) 297 (63.8) 203 (71.7)
Energy per weight (N = 8510) Low 1950 (39.8) 1051 (54.1) 605 (60.9) 566 (69.7)
High 1479 (30.8) 307 (17.4) 108 (13.9) 64 (7.9)
Protein (N = 8614) Low 821 (15.6) 450 (20.9) 297 (27.5) 303 (33.5)
Protein per weight (N = 8510) Low 1524 (29.0) 955 (46.8) 563 (55.0) 524 (63.6)
Carbohydrate (N = 8614) Low 1068 (22.8) 608 (31.1) 357 (35.5) 360 (41.2)
Simple sugar (N = 8614) High 4633 (94.6) 1778 (92.9) 896 (93.1) 758 (91.7)
Dietary fiber per energy (N = 8613) Low 4590 (94.6) 1713 (91.0) 870 (91.9) 755 (92.8)
Percentage of fat (N = 8614) Low 119 (2.0) 83 (3.6) 41 (4.2) 46 (4.6)
High 4413 (91.1) 1650 (88.1) 799 (85.0) 670 (82.7)
Percentage of saturated fat (N = 8613) High 2827 (59.6) 1078 (59.0) 554 (57.4) 479 (60.8)
Cholesterol (N = 8614) High 1924 (39.2) 652 (33.4) 312 (30.9) 255 (28.5)
Vitamin A, RAE (N = 8614) Low 3725 (75.0) 1502 (76.8) 745 (76.1) 647 (76.7)
High 31 (0.7) 5 (0.1) 11 (1.0) 4 (0.5)
Vitamin C (N = 8614) Low 2903 (62.2) 1165 (61.8) 598 (63.2) 516 (65.1)
High 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1 (0.1)
Vitamin E (N = 8614) Low 4548 (92.4) 1814 (93.2) 931 (94.9) 802 (95.9)
Vitamin K (N = 8614) Low 3754 (74.4) 1503 (76.0) 776 (78.0) 679 (80.6)
Thiamin (N = 8614) Low 1411 (27.3) 700 (34.3) 362 (35.2) 375 (42.6)
Riboflavin (N = 8614) Low 831 (14.5) 359 (15.7) 189 (17.4) 212 (23.6)
Niacin (N = 8614) Low 981 (18.0) 544 (25.3) 301 (26.2) 332 (37.1)
High 1020 (23.0) 223 (13.1) 95 (13.0) 65 (8.7)
Pyridoxine (N = 8614) Low 1596 (32.2) 898 (43.7) 507 (47.9) 470 (54.0)
Folate (N = 8614) Low 2751 (54.8) 1236 (63.3) 658 (64.6) 606 (71.3)
High 138 (3.2) 38 (2.1) 19 (2.7) 10 (1.3)
Cobalamin (N = 8614) Low 1252 (24.5) 593 (28.5) 307 (30.5) 287 (32.8)
Calcium (N = 8614) Low 3150 (63.7) 1457 (73.4) 787 (78.4) 698 (81.0)
High 125 (2.8) 30 (1.8) 9 (1.2) 4 (0.8)
Phosphorous (N = 8614) Low 551 (10.1) 322 (14.7) 187 (18.5) 217 (24.7)
High 29 (0.5) 8 (0.5) 1 (0.3) 0 (0.0)
Magnesium (N = 8614) Low 3656 (74.2) 1526 (76.9) 828 (82.7) 731 (87.1)
Iron (N = 8614) Low 1750 (34.7) 579 (30.7) 223 (23.3) 228 (29.0)
High 65 (1.4) 21 (1.1) 7 (1.0) 5 (0.7)
Zinc (N = 8614) Low 1863 (36.3) 898 (42.8) 531 (49.7) 468 (52.5)
High 56 (1.2) 14 (0.8) 8 (1.0) 3 (0.3)
Copper (N = 8614) Low 1322 (25.5) 663 (31.9) 369 (34.8) 379 (44.4)
High 10 (0.3) 1 (0.0) 2 (0.1) 1 (0.1)
Sodium (N = 8614) Low 359 (6.2) 183 (8.0) 81 (7.5) 117 (12.4)
High 3742 (79.2) 1219 (65.8) 599 (64.5) 435 (54.2)
Potassium (N = 8614) Low 4484 (91.4) 1799 (92.4) 935 (95.6) 810 (96.7)
Selenium (N = 8614) Low 571 (10.8) 344 (16.9) 203 (20.4) 228 (26.4)
High 15 (0.3) 8 (0.5) 1 (0.1) 0 (0.0)
Caffeine (N = 8614) High 489 (14.2) 191 (13.5) 82 (12.3) 80 (11.4)
Alcohol (N = 8614) High 885 (21.7) 270 (16.8) 111 (12.9) 59 (8.8)
Linoleic acid (N = 8614) Low 2414 (47.9) 1030 (51.3) 562 (54.7) 531 (62.1)
α-Linolenic acid (N = 8614) Low 2491 (49.8) 1100 (53.8) 603 (58.4) 552 (63.9)
Fish oil (N = 8614) Low 4343 (88.7) 1700 (88.5) 872 (90.6) 764 (91.1)
  1. RAE retinol activity equivalents
  2. *The percentages are weighted