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Table 4 Number of participants with abnormal range of blood levels by frailty level

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Blood tests, N (%)* Frailty index score
≤ 0.1 N = 5119 > 0.1 to 0.2 N = 2009 > 0.2 to 0.3 N = 1014 > 0.3 N = 888
Total lymphocyte count (N = 8965) Low 862 (17.8) 451 (20.9) 272 (24.2) 304 (34.6)
Haemoglobin (N = 9017) Low 304 (3.4) 224 (7.4) 175 (12.6) 216 (20.9)
High 40 (1.0) 25 (1.4) 13 (2.1) 9 (0.8)
Mean corpuscular volume (N = 9017) Low 170 (2.4) 130 (5.3) 30 (2.3) 43 (4.2)
High 43 (0.9) 74 (3.7) 56 (5.8) 56 (6.6)
Albumin (N = 8916) Low 308 (1.8) 84 (1.8) 28 (2.2) 68 (7.2)
Vitamin A (N = 8889) Low 1 (0.0) 2 (0.1) 3 (0.1) 5 (0.6)
High 168 (4.4) 148 (8.9) 128 (13.7) 159 (19.0)
Vitamin C (N = 8886) Low 264 (6.6) 147 (7.4) 78 (8.3) 82 (8.0)
High 77 (1.8) 66 (3.4) 44 (4.6) 36 (4.4)
Vitamin D (N = 8976) Low 1906 (29.4) 740 (30.5) 422 (35.6) 438 (44.6)
High 59 (1.5) 9 (0.6) 2 (0.2) 2 (0.3)
Pyridoxine (N = 8926) Low 869 (15.0) 380 (16.5) 206 (19.4) 231 (25.6)
Folate, RBC (N = 8959) Low 249 (4.1) 73 (2.7) 40 (3.1) 31 (3.5)
Cobalamin (N = 8865) Low 112 (2.0) 50 (2.4) 43 (4.4) 39 (5.3)
α-carotene (N = 8885) Low 1045 (21.4) 396 (20.4) 220 (22.5) 241 (30.3)
High 562 (11.4) 223 (11.1) 72 (6.1) 54 (6.6)
β-carotene (N = 8501) Low 908 (19.5) 345 (20.0) 197 (21.9) 189 (24.7)
High 565 (11.9) 277 (13.4) 131 (11.8) 101 (11.0)
β-cryptoxanthin (N = 8865) Low 619 (15.5) 368 (21.4) 247 (28.8) 257 (35.6)
High 876 (12.3) 294 (12.1) 122 (8.7) 76 (7.0)
Lutein/Zeaxanthin (N = 8889) Low 1131 (26.5) 531 (32.0) 307 (34.8) 346 (46.5)
High 229 (3.8) 109 (4.8) 46 (4.5) 34 (3.5)
Lycopene (N = 8889) Low 584 (10.7) 401 (16.3) 317 (29.2) 369 (40.3)
High 666 (14.0) 163 (10.0) 55 (6.3) 34 (5.4)
Iron, serum (N = 8910) Low 669 (11.6) 309 (13.8) 145 (15.3) 180 (20.8)
High 84 (1.8) 22 (1.1) 10 (1.0) 7 (1.0)
Creatinine (N = 8916) Low 337 (3.4) 103 (3.7) 40 (3.3) 30 (4.1)
High 68 (1.2) 145 (6.0) 166 (13.9) 232 (24.7)
Total cholesterol (N = 8950) High 2380 (46.1) 1053 (52.6) 445 (44.2) 367 (43.7)
Triglyceride (N = 8911) High 1574 (29.1) 734 (39.2) 402 (42.2) 370 (44.1)
HDL-c (N = 8949) Low 1453 (30.1) 576 (30.9) 290 (29.8) 312 (37.9)
LDL-c (N = 4161) High 789 (32.7) 318 (32.5) 119 (24.0) 115 (29.0)
Glucose (N = 8916) Low 141 (2.0) 25 (1.0) 16 (1.4) 20 (2.6)
High 814 (15.3) 666 (31.5) 439 (39.7) 423 (46.5)
Homocysteine (N = 8979) High 21 (0.5) 25 (1.1) 26 (2.1) 46 (5.0)
  1. HDL-c high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-c low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, RBC red blood cell
  2. *The percentages are weighted