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Table 5 Normal range of parameter

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Parameter Normal range Score in nutritional index
0 1
Nutrient intakes
 Energy (kcal/day) M ≥ 2400, F ≥ 1800 Normal range M < 2400, F < 1800
 Energy per weight (kcal/kg/day) 25-35 ≥ 25 < 25
 Protein (g/day) M ≥ 56, F ≥ 46 Normal range M < 56, F < 46
 Protein per weight (g/kg/day) < 65 years, ≥ 0.8 ≥ 65 years, ≥ 1 Normal range < 65 years, < 0.8 ≥ 65 years, < 1.0
 Carbohydrate (g/day) ≥ 180 Normal range < 180
 Simple sugar (mg/day) M < 36, F < 25 -- --
 Dietary fiber (g/1,000 kcal/day) > 14 -- --
 Percentage of fat (%) 20-35 -- --
 Percentage of saturated fat (%) < 10 Normal range ≥ 10
 Cholesterol (mg/day) < 300 -- --
 Vitamin A, RAE (mcg/day) M 900-3000 F 700-3000 Normal range M < 900 or > 3000 F < 700 or > 3000
 Vitamin C (mg/day) M 90-2000, F 75-2000 Normal range M < 90 or > 2000 F < 75 or > 2000
 Vitamin E (mg/day) 15-1000 -- --
 Vitamin K (mcg/day) M ≥ 120, F ≥ 90 -- --
 Thiamin (mg/day) M ≥ 1.2, F ≥ 1.1 Normal range M < 1.2, F < 1.1
 Riboflavin (mg/day) M ≥ 1.3, F ≥ 1.1 Normal range M < 1.3, F < 1.1
 Niacin (mg/day) M 16-35, F 14-35 Normal range M < 16 or > 35 F < 14 or > 35
 Pyridoxine (mg/day) ≤ 50 years, 1.3-100 > 50 years, M 1.7-100 > 50 years, F 1.5-100 Normal range ≤ 50 years, < 1.3 or > 100 > 50 years, M < 1.7 or > 100 > 50 years, F < 1.5 or > 100
 Folate (mcg/day) 400-1000 Normal range < 400 or > 1000
 Cobalamin (mcg/day) ≥ 2.4 -- --
 Calcium (mg/day) M ≤ 70 years, 1000-2500 M >70 years, 1200-2500 F ≤50 years, 1000-2500 F >50 years, 1200-2500 -- --
 Phosphorous (mg/day) 700-4000 Normal range < 700 or > 4000
 Magnesium (mg/day) M ≥ 420, F ≥ 320 -- --
 Iron (mg/day) M 8-45 F ≤ 50 years, 18-45 F > 50 years, 8-45 -- --
 Zinc (mg/day) M 11-40, F 8-40 -- --
 Copper (mg/day) 0.9-10 Normal range < 0.9 or > 10
 Sodium (mg/day) ≤ 50 years, 1500-2300 > 50-70 years, 1300-2300 > 70 years, 1200-2300 ≤ 50 years, ≥1,500 > 50-70 years, ≥ 1300 > 70 years, ≥1200 ≤ 50 years, < 1500 > 50-70 years, < 1300 > 70 years, < 1200
 Potassium (mg/day) ≥ 4700 -- --
 Selenium (mcg/day) 55-400 Normal range < 55 or > 400
 Caffeine (mg/day) ≤ 400 -- --
 Alcohol (g/day) M ≤ 28, F ≤ 14 -- --
 Linoleic acid (g/day) ≤ 50 years, M ≥ 17, F ≥ 12 > 50 years, M ≥ 14, F ≥ 11 -- --
 α-Linolenic acid (g/day) M ≥ 1.6, F ≥ 1.1 -- --
 Fish oil (g/day)* ≥ 0.25 Normal range < 0.25
Anthropometric measurements
 Body mass index (kg/m2) 18.5-24.9** 18.5-29.9 < 18.5 or ≥ 30.0
 Body weight change in past 1 year (%) ≤ 10 Normal range > 10
 Waist circumference (cm) M < 94, F < 80 Normal range M ≥ 94, F ≥ 80
 Triceps skinfold (mm) M 7.5-24.3, F 14.0-33.7 Normal range M < 7.5 or > 24.3 F < 14.0 or > 33.7
 Subscapular skinfold (mm) M 10.3-30.5, F 10.3-33.9 -- --
Blood tests
 Total lymphocyte count (cells/mm3) > 1500 Normal range ≤ 1500
 Haemoglobin (g/dL) M 13.5-18.0, F 12.0-16.0 Normal range M < 13.5 or > 18.0 F < 12.0 or > 16.0
 MCV (fL) 80-100 Normal range < 80 or > 100
 Albumin (g/L) 35-55 Normal range < 35 or > 55
 Vitamin A (mcmol/L) 0.35-3.00 Normal range < 0.35 or > 3.00
 Vitamin C (mg/dL) 0.2-2.0 Normal range < 0.2 or > 2.0
 Vitamin D (ng/mL) 20-50 Normal range < 20 or > 50
 Pyridoxine (nmol/L) > 20 Normal range ≤ 20
 Folate, RBC (ng/mL) ≥ 140 -- --
 Cobalamin (pg/L) > 200 -- --
 α-carotene (mcg/dL) 1.3-9.2 ≥ 1.3 < 1.3
 β-carotene (mcg/dL) 6.4-35.1 ≥ 6.4 < 6.4
 β-cryptoxanthin (mcg/dL) 4.0-16.4 ≥ 4.0 < 4.0
 Lutein/Zeaxanthin (mcg/dL) 11.1-33.0 ≥ 11.1 < 11.1
 Lycopene (mcg/dL) 11.9-36.1 ≥ 11.9 < 11.9
 Iron, serum (mcg/dL) 50-180 Normal range < 50 or > 180
 Creatinine (mg/dL) M 0.80–1.40, F 0.56–1.00 Normal range M < 0.80 or > 1.40 F < 0.56 or > 1.00
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL) < 200 -- --
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) < 150 Normal range ≥ 150
 HDL-c (mg/dL) M > 40, F > 50 Normal range M ≤ 40, F ≤ 50
 LDL-c (mg/dL) < 130 -- --
 Glucose (mg/dL) 70-100 Normal range < 70 or > 100
 Homocysteine (mcmol/L) ≤ 21.6 Normal range > 21.6
  1. F female; HDL-c High density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-c Low density lipoprotein cholesterol; M male; MCV Mean corpuscular volume; RAE Retinol activity equivalents; RBC red blood cell. -- These variables were excluded from the nutritional index due to high missing data or no relationship with high frailty; * Dietary fish oil is the combination between docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) in dietary intake.; ** <18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 25-29.9 kg/m2 (overweight), ≥30 kg/m2 (obese)