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Table 7 Association between abnormal nutrient intakes and frailty

From: Frailty, nutrition-related parameters, and mortality across the adult age spectrum

Nutrients Linear regression analysis
β-coefficient (95%CI) p value
Energy Low 0.007 (0.003, 0.011) 0.001*
Energy per weight Low 0.018 (0.014, 0.021) < 0.001*
High − 0.013 (− 0.018,− 0.009) < 0.001*
Protein Low 0.009 (0.004, 0.014) 0.001*
Protein per weight Low 0.016 (0.011, 0.020) < 0.001*
Carbohydrate Low 0.007 (0.002, 0.012) 0.004*
Simple sugar High − 0.004 (− 0.012, 0.003) 0.267
Dietary fiber per energy Low 0.005 (− 0.002, 0.012) 0.170
Percentage of fat Low 0.003 (− 0.008, 0.014) 0.597
High − 0.001 (− 0.007, 0.005) 0.737
Percentage of saturated fat High 0.005 (0.001, 0.008) 0.018*
Cholesterol High 0.003 (− 0.002, 0.007) 0.213
Vitamin A, RAE Low 0.005 (0.001, 0.010) 0.027*
High − 0.018 (− 0.043, 0.006) 0.148
Vitamin C Low 0.004 (0.001, 0.008) 0.027*
High  
Vitamin E Low − 0.004 (− 0.013, 0.004) 0.297
Vitamin K Low 0.002 (− 0.002, 0.007) 0.328
Thiamin Low 0.005 (0.001, 0.010) 0.027*
Riboflavin Low 0.008 (0.002, 0.013) 0.006*
Niacin Low 0.010 (0.005, 0.015) < 0.001*
High 0.000 (− 0.006, 0.006) 0.956
Pyridoxine Low 0.007 (0.002, 0.011) 0.003*
Folate Low 0.005 (0.001, 0.010) 0.023*
High 0.006 (− 0.006, 0.019) 0.339
Cobalamin Low 0.002 (− 0.002, 0.007) 0.354
Calcium Low − 0.003 (− 0.008, 0.002) 0.189
High 0.011 (− 0.003, 0.025) 0.134
Phosphorous Low 0.011 (0.005, 0.017) < 0.001*
High 0.019 (− 0.010, 0.048) 0.201
Magnesium Low 0.004 (− 0.002, 0.009) 0.187
Iron Low 0.001 (− 0.004, 0.006) 0.826
High 0.012 (− 0.006, 0.030) 0.183
Zinc Low 0.002 (− 0.003, 0.006) 0.499
High 0.010 (− 0.010, 0.030) 0.323
Copper Low 0.009 (0.004, 0.014) < 0.001*
High − 0.014 (− 0.061, 0.032) 0.547
Sodium Low 0.008 (0.001, 0.015) 0.022*
High − 0.008 (− 0.012, − 0.003) 0.002*
Potassium Low 0.000 (− 0.008, 0.009) 0.971
Selenium Low 0.010 (0.004, 0.015) 0.001*
High 0.004 (− 0.032, 0.041) 0.809
Caffeine High 0.000 (− 0.007, 0.006) 0.911
Alcohol High − 0.009 (− 0.015, − 0.004) 0.001*
Linoleic acid Low 0.004 (0.000, 0.009) 0.060
α-Linolenic acid Low 0.004 (− 0.001, 0.008) 0.107
Fish oil Low 0.007 (0.001, 0.013) 0.025*
  1. RAE retinol activity equivalents
  2. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, race, energy intake, educational level, marital status, employment status, smoking and study cohort except for energy, energy per weight and dietary fiber per energy which were not adjusted for energy intake
  3. – Results are not available due to low sample sizes and mortality rate, *p value < 0.05