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Table 1 Application areas of spatial methods in TB studies

From: Methods used in the spatial analysis of tuberculosis epidemiology: a systematic review

Spatial method application areas Methods used References
Spatial TB distribution or spatial clustering Dot maps, rate maps, thematic maps, Moran’s I, GetisOrd statistic, NNI Besag and Newel statistic, k-functions, spatial scan statistic [1, 2, 7, 8, 12, 16, 23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32,33,34,35,36,37,38,39,40,41, 44,45,46,47,48,49, 51,52,53,54, 57,58,59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72, 75, 93,94,95, 99, 100, 102,103,104,105,106,107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122,123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,144,145,146,147,148,149,150,151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160,161,162,163,164,165,166,167,168,169,170,171,172,173,174,175,176]
Risk factors Bayesian CAR models, regression models (with or without including spatial terms), GWR, PCA, mixture models, spatial lag models [8, 12, 33, 36, 38, 40, 42,43,44, 46,47,48,49,50,51,52, 58, 59, 62, 70, 71, 93, 94, 99,100,101,102, 104, 111, 112, 116, 117, 120, 123, 125, 127,128,129, 131, 136, 137, 141,142,143, 145, 148, 149, 156, 161, 164, 176,177,178,179,180,181,182,183,184,185,186,187,188,189]
Monitoring spatiotemporal TB trends Temporal trend maps [27, 36,37,38,39]
Intervention evaluation Distance map, kernel density map [73, 74]
Barriers to TB care Rate map, dot map, travel time map, distance map [12, 187]
TB program performance Map (time to detection) [184]
HIV-related TB incidence Rate map, dot map, spatial scan statistic [40, 166, 186, 190]
TB treatment outcomes Spatial empirical Bayes smoothing, kernel density maps, spatial scan statistic, spatial regression [152, 155, 179, 183, 191]
Mortality related to TB/HIV coinfection Rate map, thematic maps, Moran’s I and spatial regression [42, 43, 174, 192]
Transmission Dot maps (congregate settings) [54, 55, 193]
Dot maps (cases) [7, 8]
Geospatial and genotypic clustering methods [1, 2, 25, 28, 47, 57, 59,60,61,62,63,64,65,66,67,68,69,70,71,72, 93,94,95, 169, 194]
Methodological Spatial scan statistic [25]
TB outbreak detection Spatial scan statistic [1, 25, 28]
Prevalence estimation Model-based geostatistics [80]
Drivers of MDR-TB k-function [35]
  1. NNI nearest neighbourhood index, CAR models conditional autoregressive models, GWR geographically weighted regression, PCA principal component analysis, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, MDR-TB multidrug-resistant TB