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Table 2 Spatial methods used in spatial analysis of tuberculosis (n = 168)

From: Methods used in the spatial analysis of tuberculosis epidemiology: a systematic review

Method category Method Number References
Visualisation Rate map 63 [12, 16, 23, 26, 27, 29,30,31,32,33,34, 37, 41, 44,45,46, 48, 51, 52, 57, 58, 60, 61, 70, 100, 102, 103, 105, 106, 120, 123,124,125,126,127,128,129,130,131,132,133,134,135,136,137,138,139,140,141,142,143,144,145,146, 164, 165, 170, 173,174,175,176, 195, 196]
Dot map 37 [2, 7, 8, 35, 40, 47, 53, 54, 59, 66, 67, 72, 73, 75, 95, 107,108,109,110,111,112,113,114,115,116,117,118,119,120,121,122, 158, 166, 169, 178, 191, 197]
SMR map 12 [38, 49, 99, 100, 124, 126, 127, 129, 138, 142, 148, 149]
Kernel density map 7 [35, 37, 62, 93, 120, 147, 171]
Case counts maps 3 [108, 167, 172]
Others* 17 [16, 24, 50, 60, 62, 63, 68, 71, 99, 100, 103, 104, 116, 148, 166, 168, 185, 198]
Spatial cluster analysis Global Moran’s I 28 [16, 26, 34, 37, 39, 44, 48, 49, 51, 58, 65, 93, 100, 102, 123, 126, 128, 131, 133, 135, 138, 139, 145, 150, 161, 180, 188, 199]
Local Moran’s I 14 [16, 41, 44, 49, 51, 93, 100, 123, 126, 131, 135, 138, 145, 192]
Kulldorff’s spatial scan statistic 43 [1, 2, 23,24,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,32, 40, 57, 63, 64, 70, 71, 94, 109,110,111, 119, 120, 130, 135, 138, 139, 141, 151,152,153,154,155,156,157,158,159,160, 163, 164, 166, 191]
GetisOrd statistic 12 [2, 16, 26, 39, 49, 54, 65, 93, 104, 131, 139, 161]
k-NN 8 [35, 53, 69, 72, 93, 114, 122, 163]
k-function 6 [35, 62, 93, 116, 117, 147]
Besag and Newell statistic 2 [125, 145]
Statistical modelling Bayesian CAR models 7 [38, 44, 49, 99, 101, 127, 148]
Geographically weighted regression 6 [16, 50, 93, 102,103,104]
Mixture modelling 2 [142, 149]
Conventional logistic 15 [8, 40, 70, 71, 94, 95, 111, 112, 120, 141, 161, 177, 178, 187, 189]
Conventional Poisson 5 [46, 125, 136, 145, 156]
Conventional linear 5 [12, 47, 129, 137, 176]
Negative binomial 1 [164]
Factor analysis 6 [50, 103, 117, 143, 146, 170]
Regression models with spatial terms 9 [42, 48, 51, 58, 100, 116, 128, 131, 188]
Spatial prediction 11 [38, 42, 43, 62, 80, 99, 101, 127, 131, 148, 181]
  1. SMR standardised morbidity ratio, k-NN k-nearest neighbourhood test, CAR conditional autoregressive
  2. *Includes maps of disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), survival time, factor scores, probability maps, proportion of cases and regression coefficients