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Table 4 Overlap between spatial and molecular clustering

From: Methods used in the spatial analysis of tuberculosis epidemiology: a systematic review

Authors Country Genotyping methods Findings
Bishai WR, et al. 1998 [95] USA IS6110-RFLP and PGRS Genotypic clusters with epidemiologic links were spatially clustered but 76% of DNA clustered cases lack epidemiologic links.
Mathema B, et al. 2002 [169] USA IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping Genotypic clusters showed spatial aggregation
Richardson M, et al. 2002 [72] South Africa IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping Spatial aggregation of genotypic clusters was limited
Nguyen D, et al. 2003 [69] Canada IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping Genotypically similar cases were not more spatially clustered than genotypically unique cases
Moonan P, et al. 2004 [61] USA IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping Genotypic clusters were spatially heterogeneous
Jacobson L, et al. 2005 [59] Mexico IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping Spatial patterns were similar for both cases categorised as reactivation or recent transmission
Haase I, et al. 2007 [2] Canada IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping In spatial TB clusters of immigrants, there was significant genotype similarity
Higgs B, et al. 2007 [25] USA IS6110-RFLP and PGRS Space-time clusters contained genotypic clusters
Feske ML, et al. 2011 [93, 178] USA IS6110-RFLP and spoligotyping Genotypically clustered cases were randomly distributed across space
Evans JT, et al. 2011 [66] UK Spoligotyping and MIRU-VNTR Genotypic clusters showed spatial aggregation
Nava-Aguilera E, et al. 2011 [67] Mexico Spoligotyping Genotypic clusters were not spatially aggregated
Prussing C, et al. 2013 [57] USA Spoligotyping and 12- MIRU-VNTR Cases in geospatial clusters were equally or less likely to share similar genotypes than cases outside geospatial clusters
Tuite AR, et al. 2013 [94] Canada Spoligotyping and 24-MIRU-VNTR The proportion of cases in genotypic clusters was five times that seen in spatial clusters (23% vs 5%)
Kammerer JS, et al. 2013 [28] USA Spoligotyping and 12-MIRU-VNTR Genotypically similar cases were spatially clustered
Verma A, et al. 2014 [1] Canada IS6110-RFLP and Spoligotyping Space-time clusters contained few or no genotypically similar cases
Izumi K, et al. 2015 [65] Japan IS6110-RFLP Both genotypically similar and unique strains formed spatial hotspots
Chamie G, et al. 2015 [194] Uganda Spoligotyping Genotypic clusters shared social gathering sites (clinic, place of worship, market or bar)
Chan-Yeung M, et al. 2005 [47] Hong Kong IS6110-RFLP Spatial locations of genotypic clusters and unique cases did not differ by their sociodemographic characteristics
Gurjav U, et al. 2016 [70] Australia 24-MIRU-VNTR Spatial hotspots were characterised by a high proportion of unique strains; less than 4% of cases in spatial clusters were genotypically similar
Ribeiro FK, et al. 2016 [62] Brazil IS6110-RFLP and Spoligotyping Genotypic clusters were spatially clustered
Saavedra-Campos M, et al. 2016 [71] England 24-MIRU-VNTR 10% of cases clustered spatially and genotypically
Seraphin MN, et al. 2016 [64] USA Spoligotyping and 24-MIRU-VNTR 22% of cases among USA-born and 5% among foreign-born clustered spatially and genotypically
Yuen CM, et al. 2016 [68] USA Spoligotyping and 24-MIRU-VNTR Genotype clustered cases were spatially heterogeneous
Yeboah-Manu D, et al. 2016 [63] Ghana IS6110 and rpoB PCR Genotypic clusters showed spatial aggregation
Zelner J, et al. 2016 [60] Peru 24-MIRU-VNTR Genotypic clusters showed spatial aggregation
  1. PGRS polymorphic GC-rich repetitive sequence