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Table 1 Significance (P values) of associations between fetal age, sex, smoke exposure, high maternal BMI, and their interactions (two-way and three-way analyses), in circulating plasma hormones (T3, T4, TSH) and plasma thyroid hormone-binding proteins (ALB, TTR, TBG)

From: Maternal smoking and high BMI disrupt thyroid gland development

Interactions: 3-way 2-way 1-way
Smoke effect Age-sex-SE Dataset splits Age-sex Age-SE Sex-SE Age Sex SE
 T3 (nM) 0.38   0.55 0.56 0.85 0.002 () 0.027 (+ 1.4 fold ♂) 0.67
 T4 (nM) 0.098   0.65 0.030 0.89 N/A N/A Interaction
Exposure split
 C 0.19 N/A N/A 0.002 () 0.84 N/A
 SE 0.38 N/A N/A < 0.00001 () 0.96 N/A
 T3/T4 ratio 0.65   0.16 0.86 0.79 0.0004 () 0.027 (+ 1.4 fold ♂) 0.72
 `TSH (μIU/ml) 0.003 Sex split
N/A 0.23 N/A 0.28 N/A 0.47
N/A 0.003 N/A 0.092 (↓C) N/A Interaction
Exposure split
 C 0.12 N/A N/A 0.24 0.14 N/A
 SE 0.008 N/A N/A 0.017 (↑♀) Interaction N/A
 ALB 0.63   0.16 0.58 0.1 < 0.00001 () 0.35 0.420
 TTR 0.20   0.11 0.81 0.41 0.17 0.17 0.63
 TBG 0.11   0.34 0.14 0.58 0.0022 () 0.89 0.13
BMI effect Age-Sex-BMI   Age-sex Age-BMI Sex-BMI Age Sex BMI
 T3 (nM) 0.21   0.86 0.87 0.49 0.002 () 0.021 (+ 1.4 fold ♂) 0.53
 T4 (nM) 0.87   0.71 0.85 0.76 < 0.0001 () 0.74 0.49
 T3/T4 ratio 0.28   0.89 0.99 0.36 0.0003 () 0.013 (+ 1.4 fold ♂) 0.24
 TSH (μIU/ml) 0.068   0.16 0.62 0.005 N/A Interaction Interaction
Sex split
 ♂ N/A 0.14 N/A 0.25 N/A 0.27
N/A 0.26 N/A 0.23 N/A 0.0071 (+ 1.6 fold)
 ALB 0.74   0.15 0.48 0.72 < 0.00001 () 0.39 0.49
 TTR 0.24   0.11 0.48 0.10 0.16 0.15 0.23
 TBG 0.95   0.25 0.36 0.34 0.0022 () 0.88 0.13
  1. Data were log-transformed where model residuals departed from normality and/or showed heteroscedasticity. Statistically significant differences (P < 0.05) are shown in italics. C controls, SE smoke-exposed, N/A not applicable