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Table 1 Factors affecting the immunogenicity of RTS,S/AS01E. Multivariable linear models including RTS,S/AS01E vaccinees at month 3

From: Baseline exposure, antibody subclass, and hepatitis B response differentially affect malaria protective immunity following RTS,S/AS01E vaccination in African children

Isotype Antigen Age* Site Prior episode Season Baseline Ig Exposure index Sex Hb WAZ HAZ
IgG CSP FL 1.21 (0;2.43), 0.05          
CSP C-term 1.1 (0.01;2.2), 0.048   99.08 (− 16.6;375.18), 0.12   − 43.99 (− 69.72;3.61), 0.06    − 13.8 (− 28.2;3.5), 0.11   
CSP NANP 1.55 (0.3;2.82), 0.02     − 46.15 (− 65.99;-14.73), 0.009    − 14.99 (− 30.87;4.5), 0.12   
HBsAg 3.97 (2.83;5.12), < 0.001 93.14 (9.18;241.67), 0.02 238.29 (29.17;785.95), 0.01      − 18.02 (− 32.07;− 1.06), 0.04   
IgG1 CSP FL          − 21.26 (− 41.39;5.8), 0.11  
CSP C-term 1.54 (0.17;2.94), 0.03 91.17 (− 7.67;295.82), 0.08 166.93 (− 18.55;774.83), 0.1       − 21.42 (− 42.4;7.22), 0.13  
CSP NANP      − 44.3 (− 63.7;-14.7), 0.08 8.62 (0.4;17.5), 0.04     
HBsAg 4.28 (3.09;5.49), < 0.001 90.61 (4.9;246.35), 0.03 161.88 (− 4.42;617.53), 0.06      − 17.52 (− 32.3;0.43), 0.005   
IgG2 CSP FL   − 69.3 (− 78.86;-55.43), < 0.001     3.28 (− 7.2;0.8), 0.11     
CSP C-term   − 74.77 (− 84.4;-59.2), < 0.001         
CSP NANP 1.2 (0.25;2.16), 0.01 − 45.45 (− 66.66;− 10.72), 0.02    30.86 (− 8.56;87.27), 0.14 − 5.93 (− 10.55;-1.07), 0.02 25.18 (− 6.89;68.29), 0.14   − 24.23 (− 37.63;− 7.94), 0.006  
HBsAg 2.45 (1.75;3.15), < 0.001     318.44 (234.5;423), < 0.001      
IgG3 CSP FL    144.38 (− 20.29;649.19), 0.12       − 22.63 (− 43.2;5.31), 0.1  
CSP C-term 1.05 (− 0.17;2.29), 0.09      5.84 (− 0.92;13.06), 0.09     
CSP NANP 1.38 (− 0.13;2.91), 0.07   197.82 (− 8.62;870.67), 0.07      − 23.08 (− 40.14;− 1.15), 0.041   
HBsAg 1.96 (1.23;2.71), < 0.001          20.89 (3.3;41.43), 0.002
IgG4 CSP FL   − 52.07 (− 75.66;− 5.61), 0.03 123.51 (− 21.64;537.55), 0.13    8.6 (1.45;16.2), 0.02     − 22.32 (− 40.8;2.03), 0.07
CSP C-term 0.93 (− 0.38;2.25), 0.16 72.93 (− 13.56;245.99), 0.12 215.08 (0.49;887.87), 0.049   − 49.59 (− 76.34;7.39), 0.08     − 26.52 (− 45.39;− 1.14), 0.042  
CSP NANP    304.28 (72.25;848.85), 0.002        
HBsAg 0.57 (0.33;0.82), < 0.001 18.49 (4.39;34.49), 0.009 19.24 (− 2.74;46.19), 0.09   55.36 (− 6.46;158.1), 0.09    − 4 (− 7.75;− 0.1), 0.045 8.14 (1.42;15.3), 0.02 − 5.15 (− 11.05;1.14), 0.11
IgM CSP FL     − 76.82 (− 96.23;42.51), 0.11     − 14.68 (− 27.4;0.32), 0.055   
CSP C-term   62.15 (6.71;146.4), 0.02 95.03 (− 0.67;282.94), 0.052      − 18.52 (− 28.3;− 7.4), 0.002   − 12.64 (− 26.4;3.73), 0.12
CSP NANP 1.07 (0.05;2.09), 0.04          
HBsAg 2.17 (0.87;3.48), 0.001 212.61 (97.4;395.11), < 0.001 190.2 (38.4;508.6), 0.005   120.31 (49.19;225), < 0.001    − 15.86 (− 27.03;− 2.99), 0.02   − 15.53 (− 30.01;1.95), 0.08
  1. The coefficients indicate the percent change for a unit change in the predictor (95% confidence intervals), the p values indicated are for statistically significant covariates (in italics) and for those that improved the model. Malaria transmission season at month 3 sample collection (low vs high). Baseline antibodies to the same Ig/antigen. Baseline anti-P. falciparum exposure IgM levels (exposure PC1 index).
  2. Sex male vs female, Hb,g/dL baseline hemoglobin, WAZ weight-for-age Z scores, HAZ height-for-age Z scores
  3. *Continuous age at weeks. Site (Manhiça vs Kintampo)
  4. Malaria episode between month 0 and month 3 (yes vs no)