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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Modulation of innate immune responses at birth by prenatal malaria exposure and association with malaria risk during the first year of life

Characteristics Overall cohort (N = 313) Non-exposed (N = 22) Exposed no PM (N = 61) Past PM (N = 185) Chronic PM (N = 38) Acute PM (N = 7) P value
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years, mean ± SD) 26.1 ± 6.2 28.4 ± 6.4 27.7 ± 6.0 25.5 ± 6.0 23.8 ± 5.7 28.3 ± 7.2 < 0.001
 Gravidity (N (%)) < 0.001
  Primigravida 58 (18.5) 1 (4.5) 2 (3.3) 40 (21.6) 15 (39.5) 0 (0.0)  
  Secundigravida 58 (18.5) 2 (9.1) 10 (16.4) 38 (20.5) 7 (18.4) 1 (14.3)  
  Multigravida 197 (63.0) 19 (86.4) 49 (80.3) 107 (57.9) 16 (42.1) 6 (85.7)  
 ITN use (N (%)) 219 (70.0) 19 (86.4) 47 (77.0) 128 (69.2) 21 (55.3) 4 (57.1) 0.061
 MiP preventive strategy in COSMIC trial (N (%)) < 0.001
  Standard IPTp-SP 109 (34.2) 23 (37.7) 68 (36.8) 14 (36.8) 4 (57.1)  
  CSST/IPTp-SP 204 (65.2) 22 (100.0) 38 (62.3) 117 (63.2) 24 (63.2) 3 (42.9)  
 SP doses uptake (women who received ≥ 2 doses, N (%)) 293 (93.6) 21 (95.5) 55 (90.2) 178 (96.2) 32 (84.2) 7 (100.0) 0.055
 AL treatment (women treated at least once, N (%)) 67 (21.4) 7 (11.5) 43 (23.2) 14 (36.8) 3 (42.8) 0.002
 Gestational age at enrollment (median (IQR), weeks) 20 (19–22) 20 (18–26.5) 20 (20.5–25.5) 20 (19–21) 20 (16–21) 20 (20–25) 0.445
Infants characteristics
 Sex (females, N (%)) 169 (54.0) 7 (31.8) 36 (59.0) 105 (56.8) 19 (50.0) 2 (28.6) 0.110
 Birth season (malaria high-transmission season, N (%)) 243 (77.6) 14 (63.6) 44 (72.1) 141 (76.2) 37 (97.4) 7 (100.0) 0.002
 Birth weight (g, mean ± SD) 3009 ± 429.6 3119.1 ± 441.7 3041.5 ± 360.5 2988.2 ± 439.1 2967.1 ± 499.8 3169.3 ± 228.4 0.470
 LBW (< 2500 g) (no. (%)) 30 (9.6) 1 (4.5) 3 (4.9) 20 (10.8) 6 (15.8) 0 (0.0) 0.371
 Ethnicity (N (%) 0.017
  Mossi 276 (88.2) 21 (95.4) 55 (90.1) 164 (88.6) 31 (81.6) 5 (71.4)  
  Gourounsi 34 (10.8) 1 (4.6) 4 (6.6) 21 (11.4) 7 (18.4) 2 (28.6)  
  Fulani 3 (1.0) 0 (0.0) 2 (3.3) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Follow-up time (total time at risk, person-months) 2782.6 175.1 544.7 1664.1 330.4 68.3  
 Clinical malaria episode (N (%)) 189 (60.4) 11 (50.0) 37 (60.7) 113 (61.1) 24 (63.2) 4 (57.1) 0.872
 Time to first clinical malaria episode (median, months) 10.3 10.2 10.6 10.2 10.5 11.4 0.990
  1. PM placental malaria, SD standard deviation, LBW low birth weight, ITN insecticide-treated net, IQR interquartile range, MiP malaria in pregnancy, COSMIC community-based scheduled screening and treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a cluster randomized trial, IPTp-SP intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with Sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, CSST/IPTp-SP community-based scheduled screening and treatment of malaria in combination with the standard IPTp-SP, AL artemether-lumefantrine