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Table 2 Multivariable linear regression analyses assessing the effect of prenatal malaria exposure (PME) categories on TLR-mediated cytokine responses at birth

From: Modulation of innate immune responses at birth by prenatal malaria exposure and association with malaria risk during the first year of life

Cytokines* Exposed/no PM vs non-exposed Past PM vs non-exposed Chronic PM vs non-exposed Acute PM vs non-exposed
Coeff (SE) P Coeff (SE) P Coeff (SE) P Coeff (SE) P
TLR7/8 responses using log10 of ratio cytokines concentrations
 Pro IFN-α 0.15 (0.08) 0.079 0.19 (0.08) 0.018 0.09 (0.09) 0.359 0.08 (0.15) 0.591
IL-1RA 0.15 (0.12) 0.223 0.22 (0.11) 0.049 0.15 (0.14) 0.263 0.22 (0.22) 0.308
IL-1β 0.13 (0.20) 0.522 0.36 (0.18) 0.049 0.32 (0.22) 0.140 0.11 (0.35) 0.765
TNF 0.28 (0.24) 0.238 0.55 (0.22) 0.013 0.31 (0.26) 0.229 0.36 (0.42) 0.387
 Th1 IL-12 0.18 (0.16) 0.259 0.34 (0.14) 0.015 0.30 (0.17) 0.074 0.30 (0.27) 0.276
IL-2 0.12 (0.07) 0.092 0.15 (0.06) 0.019 0.14 (0.08) 0.081 0.09 (0.12) 0.448
IL-2R 0.16 (0.10) 0.103 0.23 (0.09) 0.012 0.19 (0.11) 0.081 0.15 (0.18) 0.398
IFN-γ 0.18 (0.12) 0.137 0.29 (0.11) 0.008 0.25 (0.13) 0.056 − 0.03 (0.21) 0.898
 Th2 IL-13 0.14 (0.13) 0.272 0.25 (0.12) 0.031 0.25 (0.14) 0.079 0.26 (0.22) 0.237
 Chemokines MIP-1α 0.47 (0.27) 0.085 0.72 (0.25) 0.004 0.59 (0.30) 0.049 0.57 (0.48) 0.237
MIP-1β 0.36 (0.25) 0.143 0.56 (0.22) 0.013 0.52 (0.26) 0.049 0.54 (0.43) 0.214
RANTES 0.17 (0.10) 0.097 0.23 (0.09) 0.015 0.21 (0.11) 0.062 0.07 (0.18) 0.697
 Growth factors EGF 0.10 (0.06) 0.087 0.12 (0.05) 0.017 0.09 (0.06) 0.125 0.09 (0.10) 0.360
FGF 0.16 (0.09) 0.069 0.22 (0.08) 0.005 0.23 (0.09) 0.017 0.32 (0.15) 0.037
G-CSF 0.18 (0.13) 0.170 0.35 (0.12) 0.004 0.29 (0.14) 0.047 0.38 (0.23) 0.099
GM-CSF 0.34 (0.16) 0.033 0.53 (0.14) < 0.001 0.36 (0.17) 0.032 0.64 (0.27) 0.020
HGF 0.08 (0.06) 0.151 0.11 (0.05) 0.029 0.06 (0.06) 0.299 0.04 (0.10) 0.676
TLR9 responses using log10 of ratio cytokines concentrations
 Th2 IL-5 − 0.08 (0.07) 0.283 − 0.11 (0.07) 0.008 − 0.20 (0.08) 0.009 − 0.14 (0.13) 0.267
 Growth factors FGF 0.08 (0.07) 0.231 0.14 (0.06) 0.028 0.15 (0.07) 0.050 0.14 (0.12) 0.234
G-CSF 0.11 (0.08) 0.187 0.17 (0.07) 0.016 0.15 (0.09) 0.082 0.09 (0.09) 0.505
TLR3 responses using log10 of ratio cytokines concentrations
 Th2 IL-5 − 0.06 (0.06) 0.392 − 0. 12(0.06) 0.046 − 0.15 (0.07) 0.033 − 0.02 (0.11) 0.841
 Chemokines IP-10 0.13 (0.11) 0.222 0.22 (0.10) 0.026 0.32 (0.12) 0.008 0.10 (0.19) 0.584
Unstimulated samples using log10 of crude cytokines concentrations
 Pro IFN-α − 0.11 (0.07) 0.154 − 0.14 (0.07) 0.038 − 0.15 (0.08) 0.069 − 0.01 (0.13) 0.948
IL-1RA − 0.24 (0.12) 0.055 − 0.23 (0.11) 0.040 − 0.23 (0.14) 0.086 − 0.37 (0.21) 0.084
IL-1β − 0.35 (0.24) 0.152 − 0.58 (0.22) 0.008 − 0.50 (0.26) 0.057 − 0.62 (0.42) 0.142
TNF − 0.40 (0.26) 0.117 − 0. 61(0.23) 0.009 − 0.49 (0.28) 0.079 − 0.47 (0.45) 0.296
 Anti IL-10 − 0.22 (0.32) 0.485 − 0.60 (0.29) 0.041 − 0.45 (0.35) 0.204 − 0.92 (0.56) 0.105
IL-7 − 0.34 (0.10) < 0.001 − 0.40 (0.09) < 0.001 −  0.35 (0.11) < 0.001 − 0.40 (0.17) 0.021
 Th1 IL-15 − 0.39 (0.16) 0.015 − 0.52 (0.14) < 0.001 − 0.52 (0.17) 0.003 − 0.36 (0.28) 0.190
IL-2 − 0.15 (0.08) 0.064 − 0.16 (0.07) 0.032 − 0.18 (0.09) 0.053 − 0.12 (0.14) 0.382
IFN-γ − 0.14 (0.08) 0.094 − 0.17 (0.07) 0.023 − 0.21 (0.09) 0.024 − 0.10 (0.14) 0.494
 Th2 IL-13 − 0.25 (0.12) 0.038 − 0.22 (0.11) 0.042 − 0.32 (0.13) 0.014 − 0.12 (0.21) 0.056
IL-4 − 0.27 (0.14) 0.057 − 0.40 (0.13) 0.002 − 0.26 (0.15) 0.096 − 0.07 (0.25) 0.769
 Th17 IL-17 − 0.13 (0.07) 0.046 − 0.15 (0.06) 0.016 − 0.17 (0.07) 0.017 − 0.18 (0.12) 0.128
 Chemokines MIP-1α − 0.29 (0.28) 0.297 − 0.56 (0.25) 0.029 − 0.50 (0.31) 0.102 − 0.37 (0.49) 0.453
RANTES − 0.23 (0.12) 0.050 − 0.25 (0.11) 0.023 − 0.28 (0.13) 0.029 − 0.19 (0.21) 0.371
 Growth factors EGF − 0.11 (0.07) 0.106 − 0.12 (0.06) 0.047 − 0.15 (0.07) 0.049 − 0.09 (0.12) 0.446
FGF − 0.12 (0.08) 0.151 − 0.15 (0.08) 0.049 − 0. 17(0.09) 0.070 − 0.17 (0.15) 0.244
G-CSF − 0.21 (0.17) 0.229 − 0.37 (0.15) 0.019 − 0.37 (0.15) 0.045 − 0.33 (0.30) 0.276
GM-CSF − 0.36 (0.19) 0.058 − 0.59 (0.17) < 0.001 − 0.60 (0.21) 0.004 − 0.59 (0.33) 0.079
HGF − 0.19 (0.07) 0.008 − 0.20 (0.06) 0.002 − 0.19 (0.08) 0.015 − 0.15 (0.12) 0.221
VEGF − 0.45 (0.22) 0.041 − 0.59 (0.20) 0.003 − 0.43 (0.24) 0.070 − 0.35 (0.38) 0.356
  1. PM placental malaria, Coeff coefficient, SE standard error, Pro proinflammatory cytokines, P p value, Anti anti-inflammatory cytokines, Th1 Th1-type cytokines, Th2 Th2-type cytokines, Th17 Th17, type cytokines. *Only cytokines whose concentrations are significantly modified by categories of PME are presented. Non-exposed category was used as reference in each model. Significant results are shown in italic