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Table 3 Cox proportional hazards analyses assessing the association between TLR-induced cytokine responses and the risk of malaria during the first year of life. Adjusted hazard ratio and 95% CI for each model is shown

From: Modulation of innate immune responses at birth by prenatal malaria exposure and association with malaria risk during the first year of life

Cytokines** Unstimulated TLR3 responses TLR7/8 responses TLR9 responses
Crude Crude Ratios Crude Ratios Crude Ratios
AHR (95% CI) AHR (95% CI) AHR (95% CI) AHR (95% CI) AHR (95% CI) AHR (95% CI) AHR (95% CI)
Pro IFN-α    0.24 (0.05–1.10)     
IL-1RA*     0.61 (0.36–1.03) 0.70 (0.50–0.98)   
IL-1β 1.16 (0.98–1.37) 1.15 (0.97–1.36)     1.18 (1.01–1.39)  
TNF        
Anti IL-10   1.12 (0.99–1.25)      
IL-7   1.80 (1.26–2.58) 1.54 (1.11–2.15)     
Th1 IL-15       1.22 (0.96–1.54)  
IL-12* 1.28 (0.97–1.69) 1.26 (0.95–1.68) 0.27 (0.07–1.15)   0.76 (0.59–0.98)   0.46 (0.20–1.04)
IL-2        
IL-2R        
IFN-γ        
Th2 IL-13        
IL-5        
IL-4        
Th17 IL-17        
IL-6        
Chemokines IL-8        
IP-10* 0.64 (0.38–1.08) 0.66 (0.46–0.93)     0.75 (0.59–0.96)  
MCP-1        
MIG        0.77 (0.56–1.05)
MIP-1α       1.13 (0.97–1.31)  
MIP-1β        
RANTES        
EOTAXIN 1.83 (1.11–3.01) 1.60 (0.99–2.58) 0.19 (0.03–1.14) 1.72 (1.01–2.94)    0.46 (0.24–0.86)
Growth factors EGF     0.29 (0.08–1.07)    
FGF   1.63 (0.91–2.93)      
G-CSF 1.24 (0.97–1.57)       
GM-CSF*     1.28 (1.01–1.15)    
HGF        
VEGF        
  1. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, Pro proinflammatory cytokines, Anti anti-inflammatory cytokines, Th1 Th1-type cytokines, Th2 Th2-type cytokines, Th17 Th17-type cytokines. **Only results of cox proportional analysis for cytokines with P value (P) ≤ 0.100 are presented. *Cytokines whose levels were significantly modified by prenatal malaria exposure categories. Significant results are shwon in italic