Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of the singleton cohort by ethnicity and gestational diabetes status

From: Gestational diabetes and ultrasound-assessed fetal growth in South Asian and White European women: findings from a prospective pregnancy cohort

  White European South Asian
All (N = 4747) No GDM (N = 4537) GDM (N = 210) All (N = 5958) No GDM (N = 5336) GDM (N = 622)
Infant characteristics
 Sex, % (N)
  Male 51.7 (2455) 51.8 (2351) 49.5 (104) 51.5 (3069) 51.4 (2743) 52.4 (326)
  Female 48.3 (2292) 48.2 (2186) 50.5 (106) 48.5 (2889) 48.6 (2593) 47.6 (296)
 Ethnicity by country, % (N)
  White British 92.6 (4396) 92.7 (4204) 91.4 (192)
  White other 7.4 (351) 7.3 (333) 8.6 (18)
  Pakistani 87.0 (5181) 87.1 (4649) 85.5 (532)
  Indian 7.2 (43) 7.4 (392) 6.4 (40)
  Bangladeshi 5.8 (345) 5.5 (295) 8.0 (50)
Birthweight (g), mean (SD) 3354 (550) 3359 (551) 3246 (450) 3140 (515) 3145 (517) 3094 (489)
 Missing, % (N) 0.2 (8) 0.2 (8) 0 (0) 0.03 (2) 0.04 (2) 0 (0)
Gestational age at birth (years), mean (SD) 39.3 (1.8) 39.4 (1.8) 38.1 (1.5) 39.1 (1.7) 39.2 (1.7) 38.2 (1.3)
 Missing, % (N) 0.2 (8) 0.2 (8) 0 (0) 0.03 (2) 0.04 (2) 0 (0)
 Intergrowth birth weight centiles (full cohort analyses), % (N)*
  SGA (< 10th) 8.0 (377) 8.1 (368) 4.3 (9) 16.2 (962) 16.7 (891) 11.4 (71)
  LGA (> 90th) 14.9 (707) 14.8 (669) 18.1 (38) 7.0 (419) 6.6 (354) 10.5 (65)
  Missing 0.2 (8) 0.2 (8) 0 (0) 0.03 (2) 0.04 (2) 0 (0)
 Intergrowth birth weight centiles (restricted analyses), % (N)*
  SGA (< 10th) 7.1 (275) 7.3 (268) 3.6 (7) 16.4 (730) 17.0 (677) 11.3 (53)
  LGA (> 90th) 15.1 (584) 15.0 (552) 16.8 (32) 6.7 (297) 6.2 (246) 10.8 (51)
  Missing 18.6 (884) 19.0 (864) 9.5 (20) 25.3 (1508) 25.4 (1357) 24.3 (151)
 Customized birth weight centiles, % (N)**
  SGA (< 10th) 16.4 (634) 16.7 (614) 10.5 (20) 15.0 (670) 15.5 (617) 11.3 (53)
  LGA (> 90th) 4.8 (186) 4.6 (170) 8.4 (16) 6.0 (269) 5.5 (220) 10.4 (49)
  Missing 18.6 (884) 19.0 (864) 9.5 (20) 25.3 (1508) 25.4 (1357) 24.3 (151)
Maternal characteristics
Age at delivery (years), mean (SD) 26.7 (6.0) 26.6 (6.0) 30.2 (5.4) 28.0 (5.1) 27.7 (5.0) 30.7 (5.3)
 Parity, % (N)
  Primiparous 48.5 (2238) 48.6 (2144) 46.1 (94) 32.1 (1843) 32.9 (1692) 25.0 (151)
  1 30.6 (1413) 30.6 (1349) 31.4 (64) 27.5 (1577) 28.3 (1455) 20.2 (122)
  2 13.1 (603) 13.0 (573) 14.7 (30) 20.5 (1180) 20.3 (1045) 22.4 (135)
  ≥ 3 7.8 (358) 7.8 (342) 7.8 (16) 19.9 (1145) 18.5 (949) 32.5 (196)
  Missing 2.8 (135) 2.8 (129) 2.9 (6) 3.6 (213) 3.7 (195) 2.9 (18)
Height (cm), mean (SD) 164.1 (6.2) 164.2 (6.3) 163.8 (6.1) 159.4 (5.8) 159.6 (5.8) 157.9 (5.8)
 Missing, % (N) 12.6 (598) 12.9 (587) 5.2 (11) 18.3 (1090) 18.4 (981) 17.5 (109)
Body mass index (kg/m2), mean (SD) 26.6 (6.0) 26.5 (5.9) 28.6 (6.3) 25.5 (5.4) 25.2 (5.3) 28.2 (5.8)
 Missing, % (N) 14.5 (689) 14.9 (674) 7.1 (15) 19.6 (1166) 19.6 (1046) 19.3 (120)
Education, % (N)
 < 5 GCSEs 19.4 (799) 19.6 (770) 14.7 (29) 24.7 (1208) 23.9 (1045) 31.5 (163)
 5 GCSEs 34.1 (1404) 34.4 (1350) 27.4 (54) 30.9 (1513) 30.9 (1353) 31.0 (160)
 A-level 17.3 (714) 17.4 (681) 16.8 (33) 12.8 (625) 13.3 (583) 8.1 (42)
 Higher than A-level 20.8 (857) 20.3 (796) 31.0 (61) 28.4 (1389) 28.7 (1255) 25.9 (134)
 Other 8.3 (343) 8.2 (323) 10.2 (20) 3.3 (163) 3.3 (145) 3.5 (18)
 Missing 13.3 (630) 13.6 (617) 6.2 (13) 17.8 (1060) 17.9 (955) 16.9 (105)
Maternal characteristics
Smoking during pregnancy, % (N)
  No 67.4 (2836) 67.0 (2682) 76.2 (154) 96.8 (4817) 96.8 (4307) 96.6 (510)
  Yes 32.6 (1371) 33.0 (1323) 23.8 (48) 3.2 (159) 3.2 (141) 3.4 (18)
  Missing 11.4 (540) 11.7 (532) 3.8 (8) 16.5 (982) 16.6 (888) 15.1 (94)
 Any alcohol during pregnancy, % (N)
  No 33.3 (1399) 33.1 (1323) 37.6 (76) 98.7 (4908) 98.7 (4389) 98.5 (519)
  Yes 66.7 (2802) 66.9 (2676) 62.4 (126) 1.4 (67) 1.3 (59) 1.5 (8)
  Missing 11.5 (546) 11.9 (538) 3.8 (8) 16.5 (983) 16.6 (888) 15.3 (95)
Fasting glucose (mmol/L), mean (SD) 4.40 (0.41) 4.39 (0.37) 4.86 (0.82) 4.63 (0.61) 4.53 (0.42) 5.42 (1.17)
Missing 10.0 (475) 10.3 (468) 3.3 (7) 8.0 (479) 8.1 (448) 5.0 (31)
2-h postload glucose (mmol/L), mean (SD) 5.44 (1.28) 5.28 (1.07) 8.55 (1.20) 5.88 (1.64) 5.48 (1.02) 9.13 (2.13)
 Missing 10.1 (481) 10.4 (474) 3.3 (7) 8.2 (486) 8.5 (455) 5.0 (31)
 Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, % (N)
  No 93.3 (4427) 93.3 (4231) 93.3 (196) 94.7 (5644) 94.8 (5057) 94.4 (587)
  Yes 6.7 (320) 6.7 (306) 6.7 (14) 5.3 (314) 5.2 (279) 5.6 (35)
  1. GDM gestational diabetes, SD standard deviation, GCSE General Certificate of Secondary Education. *SGA- and LGA-defined based on non-customized birth weight centiles (standardized on sex and gestational age only) according to Intergrowth-21st standards. **SGA- and LGA-defined based on GROW customized birth weight centiles (standardized on sex, gestational age, maternal parity, height, and weight). For the Intergrowth-21st (non-customized) charts, we present results for the maximal sample (n = 10,695) and for the smaller sample (n = 8313 with no missing data on maternal parity, height, and weight) used for comparison with customized birth weight centiles. Please note that the Intergrowth-21st standards and GROW customized birth weight centiles use different methods, with different principles regarding health birth size. Thus, even where two proportions are similar, it is likely that different participants contribute to the cases of SGA and LGA