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Table 1 Overview of included studies

From: Offspring outcomes after prenatal interventions for common mental disorders: a meta-analysis

Author, year Study focus Selection criteria Conditions and timing of intervention No. of participants Authors conclude sign. Effect of intervention on mother? Offspring measures Country Risk of bias
S C B A I R O T
Bastani, 2006 [53] Anxiety STAI > 30 IG: Applied relaxation training, 7 wk. group sessions
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 52; CG, 52; Total, 104 Yes, on anxiety symptoms Medical records:
BW & GA
Iran ? ? ? ? + ? H
Cappon, 2015 [54] x Anxiety BAI ≥ 21 IG: Listening to music, 20 to 296 times individually
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 36; CG, 37; Total, 73 Yes, on anxiety symptoms Questionnaire:
BW & GA. IBQ-r at age 2 to 3 months
USA ? ? + + + + L
Chambers, 2009 [55] x Anxiety STAI; State or trait subscale
≥ 40
IG: 6 wk. individual relaxation training
CG: List of tips for reducing stress
Prenatal
IG, 10; CG, 12;
Total, 22
No Medical records: BW & GA & Apgar scores USA + ? + + H
Fenwick, 2015 [56] Fear of childbirth W-DEQ
≥ 66
IG: Telephone psycho-education, 2 sessions
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 91; CG, 93;
Total, 184
Yes, on flashbacks Medical records: GA. Hospitalization up to 6 weeks Australia + + + + + L
Field, 2009 [45] Depression SCID diagnosis MDD IG: Massage therapy, 12 wk. sessions
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 88; CG, 61;
Total, 149
Yes, on depressive symptoms Medical records: BW & GA. Saliva (cortisol) & BNBAS at age 2 days USA + ? + H
Karamoozian, 2015 [51] Depression & Anxiety EPDS > 9 & PRAQ high score IG: 12 wk. group CBSM
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 14; CG, 15;
Total, 29
Yes, on anxiety and depressive symptoms Apgar scale: Apgar scores Iran ? ? ? ? + + H
Madigan, 2015 [58] PTSD in adolescents CPTSDI PTSD diagnosis or AAI unresolved state of mind IG: 12 wk. trauma focused CBT plus 12 sessions parenting course
CG: Parenting course (TAU)
Prenatal
IG, 12; CG, 14; Total, 26 No ASSP at age 12 months Canada ? ? ? + + + L
Maselko, 2015 [46] a* Depression SCID diagnosis MDD IG: Thinking healthy programme (CBT based), 7 wk. visits and 9 monthly visits
CG: Enhanced routine care
Prenatal and postpartum
IG, 289; CG, 295; Total, 584 Yes, less MDD diagnoses in IG SDQ, SCAS, weight, height, and BMI at age 7 years Pakistan + + + + + L
Milgrom, 2015 [50] Depression SCID diagnosis MDD and EPDS ≥ 13 IG: Beating blues before birth (CBT based), 8 sessions
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 16; CG, 13;
Total, 29
Yes, on depressive and anxiety symptoms Medical records: BW & GA. IBQ-R, ASQ-3, and ASQ-SE at age 9 months Australia + + ? + + M
Netsi, 2015 [47] Depression CIS diagnosis MDD IG: 12 sessions individual CBT
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 14; CG, 11;
Total, 25
Yes, on depressive symptoms Medical records: BW. ICQ and BISQ at age 2 months UK + + + + H
Rahman, 2008 [44]* Depression SCID diagnosis MDD IG: Thinking healthy programme (CBT based), 7 wk. visits and 9 monthly visits
CG: Enhanced routine care
Prenatal and postpartum
IG, 440; CG, 463; Total, 903 Yes, on MDD diagnoses Records: Weight, height, health at ages 6 and 12 months Pakistan + + + + + + + L
Rothberg, 1991 [59] Stress SRRS ≥ 39 IG: Psychosocial support during each antenatal clinic visit
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 43; CG, 43; Total, 86 No Medical records & Ballard score: BW & GA. Height, hospitalization at birth South Africa + ? ? + + H
Rouhe, 2013 [57] Fear of childbirth W-DEQ ≥ 100 IG: 6 sessions psycho-educative group therapy
CG: TAU
Prenatal and postpartum
IG, 131; CG, 240; Total: 371 Yes, on fear symptoms Medical records: BW & GA & Apgar scores. Arterial Ph. at birth Finland + + + H
Urizar, 2011 [48] Depression CES-D ≥ 16 or past history of MDD IG: 12 wk. group CBSM
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 24; CG, 29; Total, 53 No Saliva (cortisol) at ages 6 and 18 months USA ? ? ? ? + + H
Verbeek, 2016[52]x Depression & Anxiety EPDS ≥ 12 or STAI ≥ 42 IG: 10 to 12 sessions individual CBT
CG: TAU
Prenatal and postpartum
IG, 121; CG, 120; Total, 241 No Medical records: BW & GA & Apgar scores NL + + + + + + L
Verbeek, 2016b [52] b x Depression & Anxiety EPDS ≥ 12 or STAI ≥ 42 IG: 10 to 12 sessions individual CBT
CG: TAU
Prenatal and postpartum
IG, 97; CG, 99; Total, 196 No CBCL and BSID at age 18 months NL + + + + + + L
Vilhena, 2017 [60] Common mental disorder in obese women SRQ-20
≥ 8
IG: Homeopathy, 2 times a day, 4 days a week
CG: Placebo
Prenatal
IG, 62; CG, 72; Total, 134 No Records:
GA, BW, Apgar of 10 at 5 min after birth
Brazil + + + ? ? + L
Zhao, 2017 [49] Depression EPDS ≥ 9 or PDSS ≥ 20 IG: 6 sessions couple-separated psycho-educational program for first time parents
CG: TAU
Prenatal
IG, 175; CG, 174; Total, 349 Yes, on depressive status Medical records:
GA, BW
China + ? ? ? + + ? L
  1. All presented studies were randomized controlled trials (RCT), except for *cluster RCT. xDoctoral dissertation. aFollow-up for Rahman 2008. bFollow-up for Verbeek 2016. IG intervention group, CG control group, TAU treatment as usual, wk weekly, MDD major depressive disorder, CBSM cognitive-behavioral stress management, CBT cognitive behavioral therapy, BW birth weight, GA gestational age, USA United States of America, UK United Kingdom, NL the Netherlands, BAI Beck anxiety inventory, STAI state trait anxiety inventory, W-DEQ Wijma delivery expectancy/experience questionnaire, SCID structured clinical interview for DSM disorders, EPDS Edinburgh postnatal depression scale, PRAQ pregnancy-related anxiety questionnaire, CPTSDI children’s PTSD inventory, PTSD posttraumatic stress disorder, AAI adult attachment interview, MDD major depressive disorder, CIS clinical interview schedule, SRRS social readjustment rating scale, CES-D Centre for Epidemiological Studies depression Scale, SRQ-20 self-report questionnaire, IBQ-R infant behaviour questionnaire revised, ASQ-3 ages and stages questionnaire, ASQ-SE ages and stages questionnaire social emotional, SDQ strengths and difficulties questionnaire, SCAS Spence children’s anxiety scale, ASSP Ainsworth strange situation procedure, BNBAS Brazelton neonatal behaviour assessment scale, ICQ infant characteristic questionnaire, BISQ brief infant sleep questionnaire, BSID Bayley scales of infant development, CBCL child behaviour checklist. Risk of bias criteria are represented as S = sequence generation, C = allocation concealment, B = blinding of participants and personnel, A = blinding of outcome assessors, I = incomplete outcome data, R = selective reporting, O = other sources of bias, and are coded as + = low risk of bias (0 points), − = high risk of bias (2 points),? = unclear risk of bias (1 point). T = total risk of bias, in which H = high risk of bias, L = low risk of bias. Total risk of bias is scored as < 6 = low risk, > 6 high risk