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Table 2 Hazard ratios of cardiovascular mortality according to the frequency of sauna bathing, overall and among men and women

From: Sauna bathing is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and improves risk prediction in men and women: a prospective cohort study

Frequency of sauna bathing (sessions/week) Events/total Model 1   Model 2   Model 3   Model 4*  
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Overall
 Once 63/455 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 2–3 110/1028 0.71 (0.52 to 0.98) 0.035 0.78 (0.57 to 1.08) 0.133 0.77 (0.56 to 1.07) 0.121 0.75 (0.52 to 1.08) 0.120
 4–7 8/205 0.30 (0.14 to 0.64) 0.002 0.36 (0.17 to 0.76) 0.007 0.36 (0.17 to 0.77) 0.008 0.23 (0.08 to 0.65) 0.005
Men
 Once 39/177 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 2–3 71/512 0.61 (0.41 to 0.90) 0.013 0.70 (0.47 to 1.03) 0.073 0.69 (0.46 to 1.03) 0.069 0.68 (0.43 to 1.09) 0.111
 4–7 8/132 0.33 (0.15 to 0.71) 0.005 0.39 (0.18 to 0.84) 0.016 0.39 (0.18 to 0.84) 0.016 0.26 (0.09 to 0.75) 0.013
Women
 Once 24/278 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 2–3 39/516 0.95 (0.57 to 1.57) 0.830 1.03 (0.59 to 1.77) 0.929 1.00 (0.57 to 1.74) 0.997 0.88 (0.48 to 1.60) 0.676
 4–7 0/73 NE   NE   NE   NE  
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and gender
  2. Model 2: model 1 plus body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol consumption, previous myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes
  3. Model 3: model 2 plus physical activity (duration per week) and socio-economic status
  4. Model 4: model 3 plus incident coronary heart disease as a time-dependent covariate
  5. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio, NE not estimated because of zero event rate; analysis is based on 1688 participants and 181 cardiovascular deaths
  6. *The model was limited to the population at risk and did not include those who already had coronary heart disease