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Table 3 Hazard ratios of cardiovascular mortality according to the weekly duration of sauna bathing, overall and among men and women

From: Sauna bathing is associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality and improves risk prediction in men and women: a prospective cohort study

Duration of sauna bathing (minutes/week) Events/total Model 1   Model 2   Model 3   Model 4*  
HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value HR (95% CI) P value
Overall
 ≤ 15 62/463 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 16–45 96/906 0.69 (0.50 to 0.96) 0.027 0.77 (0.55 to 1.06) 0.112 0.77 (0.55 to 1.07) 0.123 0.74 (0.51 to 1.09) 0.132
 > 45 23/319 0.49 (0.30 to 0.80) 0.004 0.57 (0.35 to 0.93) 0.025 0.57 (0.35 to 0.94) 0.028 0.60 (0.34 to 1.05) 0.074
Men
 ≤ 15 29/157 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 16–45 72/461 0.83 (0.54 to 1.28) 0.406 0.92 (0.59 to 1.43) 0.711 0.92 (0.59 to 1.43) 0.705 1.05 (0.61 to 1.83) 0.846
 > 45 17/203 0.50 (0.27 to 0.91) 0.023 0.57 (0.31 to 1.04) 0.068 0.57 (0.31 to 1.05) 0.073 0.68 (0.33 to 1.43) 0.311
Women
 ≤ 15 33/306 Ref   Ref   Ref   Ref  
 16–45 24/445 0.53 (0.31 to 0.89) 0.017 0.62 (0.36 to 1.08) 0.093 0.61 (0.35 to 1.07) 0.084 0.51 (0.28 to 0.91) 0.024
 > 45 6/116 0.58 (0.24 to 1.39) 0.222 0.75 (0.31 to 1.83) 0.528 0.75 (0.31 to 1.85) 0.532 0.66 (0.25 to 1.76) 0.408
  1. Model 1: adjusted for age and gender
  2. Model 2: model 1 plus body mass index, smoking, systolic blood pressure, serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, alcohol consumption, previous myocardial infarction, and type 2 diabetes
  3. Model 3: model 2 plus physical activity (duration per week) and socio-economic status
  4. Model 4: model 3 plus incident coronary heart disease as a time-dependent covariate
  5. CI confidence interval, HR hazard ratio; analysis is based on 1688 participants and 181 cardiovascular deaths
  6. *The model was limited to the population at risk and did not include those who already had coronary heart disease