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Table 2 Weight at the three assessment times in fresh and frozen cycle ART-conceived singleton babies: association with ART treatment parameters

From: The growth of assisted reproductive treatment-conceived children from birth to 5 years: a national cohort study

  Adjusted BW (GROW)
N = 5071
Weight at 6/8 weeks
N = 3908
Weight at school entry
N = 2571
Effect size (95% CI) (g) P Effect size (95% CI) (g) P Effect size (95% CI) (g) P
Fresh embryo-transfer cycle Reference < 0.001 Reference < 0.001 Reference 0.172
Frozen embryo-transfer cycle 127.4 (95.0, 162.8) 133.3 (75.4, 190.2) 257.8 (-115.5, 650.7)
Scottish Deprivation Index Quintile
 1 (most deprived) -60.8 (-111.1, -12.0) 0.218 23.9 (-53.4, 101.9) 0.288 494.1 (-63.4, 1051) 0.502
 2 -24.0 (-67.6, 16.4) 53.0 (-12.8, 118.3) 67.7 (-328.9, 464.3)
 3 -11.1 (-50.5, 30.0) 29.8 (-29.8, 92.7) 69.3 (-295.1, 431.7)
 4 -14.8 (-51.0, 18.0) -16.4 (-74.6, 40.0) 22.2 (-321.9, 323.1)
 5 (least deprived) Reference Reference Reference
Smoked during pregnancy -181.5 (-230.6, -133.5) < 0.001 -117.9 (-197.4, -39.5) 0.004 118.6 (-354.0, 667.8) 0.649
Maternal age (linear) 9.8 (-30.2, 52.3) 0.234 -69.9 (-172.4, 41.2) 0.225 205.9 (-440.8, 840.6) 0.818
Maternal age (quadratic) 53.6 (-6.4, 114.4) 14.0 (-90.6, 110.7) -157.0 (-800.4, 448.9)
Paternal age (linear) 4.6 (-26.3, 33.3) 0.681 -32.6 (-80.1, 17.0) 0.423 -19.0 (-306.9, 280.7) 0.750
Paternal age (quadratic) -11.7 (-38.1, 14.8) 11.2 (-35.3, 58.0) 122.9 (-192.7, 504.1)
ICSI -8.5 (-47.6, 31.8) 0.674 27.4 (-27.3, 84.3) 0.347 124.8 (-270.9, 551.2) 0.543
No. previous ART cycles
 0 Reference 0.875 Reference 0.764 Reference 0.598
 1 5.1 (-31.0, 39.5) 23.6 (-35.6, 77.6) 195.3 (-149.9, 537.8)
 2 -7.0 (-48.0, 36.3) -7.4 (-76.1, 61.3) -18.4 (-427.5, 390.0)
 3 or more 11.0 (-29.6, 50.5) -5.7 (-75.7, 61.2) -44.9 (-461.8, 342.2)
Infertility cause
 Fallopian tubal damage -14.0 (-58.4, 34.4) 0.555 -34.2 (-112.6, 40.1) 0.370 -210.3 (-610.3, 229.3) 0.344
 Endometrial -18.4 (-65.2, 35.5) 0.482 -71.0 (-148.0, 13.1) 0.074 -470.8 (-915.2, -33.0) 0.042
 Ovulatory disorders -22.1 (-77.1, 33.0) 0.426 -37.8 (-125.7, 50.2) 0.409 -88.8 (-604.9, 408.4) 0.725
 Male-factor cause -13.5 (-52.9, 28.4) 0.527 -28.1 (-90.4, 32.4) 0.364 -12.1 (-375.0, 352.7) 0.949
 Idiopathic -42.8 (-87.3, 5.9) 0.070 -44.2 (-114.6, 35.7) 0.229 -272.0 (-673.0, 173.5) 0.206
  1. Results from multiple linear regression models for weight at the three time points, adjusting for type of ART conception, Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation, maternal age and smoking status during pregnancy, paternal age, whether or not ICSI was used, the number of previous ART cycles and causes of infertility. Full model details are available in Additional file 1: Table S4
  2. Quoted effect sizes represent the difference from the indicated reference category. The effect size for maternal smoking represents the difference between mothers who smoked and those who did not smoke during pregnancy. The effect size for ICSI represents the difference between ART cycles in which ICSI was used and those in which it was not. The effect size for infertility causes represents the difference between the stated cause being identified within the couple and not being identified
  3. P values are calculated from an omnibus chi-squared test that parameter estimates are simultaneously zero
  4. Note that for ease of interpretation, the effect sizes for the linear and quadratic components of maternal/paternal age represent the change in outcome for a 10-year change in maternal/paternal age