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Table 1 Association of obesity risk factors with low-grade systemic inflammation and hyperinsulinaemia

From: Insulin translates unfavourable lifestyle into obesity

Lifestyle factor Inflammation Hyperinsulinaemia/ insulin resistance References
Calorie-rich diets Yes a Yes a [4, 5, 114]
Sedentary time Yes a Yes a [7, 8, 115]
Road traffic Yes a Yes a [9, 116, 117]
Sleep deprivation Yes a Yes a [10,11,12]
Smoking Yes Yes [14, 15]
Depression, stress Yes Yes [13, 16]
Low socioeconomic status Yes Yes [17, 18]
  1. a Randomised controlled trials indicate causal relationship