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Table 3 Maternal outcomes in lifestyle intervention and control groups

From: Effects of a lifestyle intervention during pregnancy to prevent excessive gestational weight gain in routine care – the cluster-randomised GeliS trial

  Intervention Control Unadjusted effect size (95% CI) p value Adjusted effect sizea (95% CI) Adjusted p valuea
Pregnancy complications
Gestational diabetes mellitus 109/1008 (10.8%) 106/954 (11.1%) 0.74 (0.37 to 1.47) 0.383 0.84 (0.41 to 1.71) 0.622
 Dietary treatment 24/1008 (2.4%) 33/954 (3.5%)     
 Insulin treatment 19/1008 (1.8%) 17/954 (1.8%)     
Treated GDM 35/1008 (3.5%) 47/954 (4.9%) 0.68 (0.33 to 1.39) 0.285 0.76 (0.43 to 1.37) 0.364
HbA1c, mmol/mol 32.2 ± 3.7 32.1 ± 3.5 0.15 (– 0.45 to 0.74) 0.633 0.24 (– 0.40 to 0.87) 0.468
HbA1c, % 5.1 ± 0.3 5.1 ± 0.3 0.01 (– 0.00 to 0.03) 0.126 0.02 (– 0.01 to 0.05) 0.119
Hypertensionb 99/1041 (9.5%) 66/1039 (6.4%) 1.56 (0.98 to 2.49) 0.060 1.64 (1.09 to 2.45) 0.017
Preeclampsia/HELLP syndrome 14/1006 (1.4%) 13/965 (1.3%) c   c  
Bleeding 31/956 (3.2%) 39/893 (4.4%) 0.69 (0.35 to 1.34) 0.270 0.65 (0.32 to 1.29) 0.216
Preterm labour 15/956 (1.6%) 26/893 (2.9%) 0.54 (0.35 to 0.84) 0.006 0.51 (0.33 to 0.79) 0.003
Obstetric outcomes
Birth mode
 Spontaneous birth 615/1016 (60.5%) 628/1003 (62.6%) Reference   Reference  
 Elective caesarean section 157/1016 (15.5%) 117/1003 (11.6%) 1.37 (1.05 to 1.78) 0.019 1.41 (1.08 to 1.85) 0.017
 Emergency caesarean section 150/1016 (14.8%) 159/1003 (15.9%) 0.96 (0.75 to 1.24) 0.769 0.86 (0.67 to 1.12) 0.257
 Instrumental vaginal delivery 94/1016 (9.3%) 99/1003 (9.9%) 0.97 (0.72 to 1.31) 0.842 0.83 (0.61 to 1.14) 0.245
Induction of labour 174/1007 (17.3%) 233/992 (23.5%) 0.71 (0.48 to 1.06) 0.098 0.65 (0.43 to 0.98) 0.038
Anaesthesia 769/1001 (76.8%) 787/983 (80.1%) 1.05 (0.55 to 2.00) 0.871 1.23 (0.69 to 2.19) 0.472
Weight retention, kg (6–8 weeks postpartum) 4.0 ± 4.8d (n = 976) 4.3 ± 4.8 (n = 934) – 0.13 (– 0.95 to 0.69) 0.760 – 0.19 (– 1.01 to 0.63) 0.649
  1. aAdjusted for pre-pregnancy BMI, age and parity
  2. bSystolic blood pressure > 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure > 90 mmHg at at least two time points
  3. cNo statistic testing due to small number of cases
  4. dMean ± SD (all such values)
  5. GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, HbA1c glycated haemoglobin