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Table 2 Study and intervention characteristics

From: Implementation science and stigma reduction interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

Level Description Reference
 Year of publication
 Implementation frameworks used e.g., RE-AIM [29] or Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research [28] Nilsen [30]
 Study design Qualitative, cross-sectional, cohort, non-randomized pre/post with and without controls, individual and cluster randomized trials, economic evaluations, or other
 Study type Effectiveness, type 1 hybrid, type 2 hybrid, type 3 hybrid, implementation, or scale-up Curran et al. [31]
 Study population Community, patient, provider, and/or policy-makers
 Implementation outcomes reported Acceptability, adoption, appropriateness, feasibility, fidelity, cost, penetration, and/or sustainability Proctor et al. [24]
 Non-implementation outcomes reported Outcomes related to stigma, service delivery, and patient health
 Key findings
 Reporting of implementation outcomes
 Included in study objectives? Whether the implementation outcome(s) were included in the study’s prespecified objectives  
 Hypothesis or conceptual model stated? Whether the implementation outcomes were motivated by a hypothesis or conceptual model  
 Methods for outcomes specified? Whether the methods for measuring the implementation outcomes were included  
 Used validated measure(s)? Whether the measures used were from or based on a validated measure  
 Sample size specified? Whether the implementation outcomes included the sample size of the population assessed  
 Intervention description
 WHO Region Sub-Saharan Africa, East Asia and Pacific, South Asia, Middle East and North Africa, Europe and Central Asia, Latin America and the Caribbean
 Stigmatizing health condition
 Type of stigma reduction intervention Information/education, skill development, counseling or support, contact events, structural, biomedical Stangl et al. [3]
 Stigma domain targeted Driver, facilitator, and/or manifestation Stangl et al. [3]
 Type of stigma targeted Community, experienced, internalized, anticipated, and/or unclear Turan et al. [40]
Intervention specification using the TIDieR Checklist Hoffman et al. [41]
 Why Intervention motivated with a rationale, theory, or goal  
 What Description or link of the intervention’s physical or informational materials  
 Who provided Expertise, background, and any specific training of the person implementing the intervention  
 How Mode of delivery (e.g., face-to-face)  
 Where Type of location of the intervention  
 When and how much Timing, duration, dose, and intensity of the intervention  
 Tailoring Intervention is personalized to participants or groups of participants  
 Modifications Whether the intervention was modified during the course of the study  
 How well was fidelity assessed Methods for assessing fidelity  
 Quality of fidelity If fidelity was assessed, the rating of the fidelity