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Table 4 Study-level descriptive statistics (n = 35)

From: Implementation science and stigma reduction interventions in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review

  Total (%)
Median publication year (range) 2013 (2003–2017)
Implementation research framework 0 (0%)
Study designa
 Qualitative 20 (57%)
 Cross-sectional 8 (23%)
 Cohort 1 (3%)
 Non-randomized pre/post without control 7 (20%)
 Non-randomized pre/post with control 3 (9%)
 Individual randomized controlled trial 2 (6%)
 Cluster randomized controlled trial 6 (17%)
 Policy analysis 0 (0%)
 Economic evaluation 2 (6%)
 Other 3 (9%)
Study type
 Effectiveness 1 (3%)
 Type 1 hybrid 32 (91%)
 Type 2 hybrid 0 (0%)
 Type 3 hybrid 0 (0%)
 Implementation 2 (6%)
Implementation stage
 Pilot/once-off 29 (83%)
 Scaling up 0 (0%)
 Implemented and sustained at scale 6 (17%)
 De-implementation 0 (0%)
Study populationa
 Community 28 (80%)
 Patients 13 (37%)
 Providers 10 (29%)
 Policy-makers 3 (9%)
Implementation outcomes reporteda
 Acceptability 20 (57%)
 Adoption 1 (3%)
 Appropriateness 5 (14%)
 Cost 2 (6%)
 Feasibility 14 (40%)
 Fidelity 4 (11%)
 Penetration 6 (17%)
 Sustainability 2 (6%)
Implementation outcome reportinga
 Mean reporting score (SD) 40% (30%)
 Included in study objectives? 14 (40%)
 Hypothesis or conceptual model stated? 3 (9%)
 Methods for outcomes specified? 28 (80%)
 Used validated measure(s)? 0 (0%)
 Sample size specified? 24 (69%)
Other outcomes reporteda
 Stigma 25 (71%)
 Service delivery 12 (34%)
 Patient health 7 (20%)
 Other 13 (37%)
  1. a≥1 response per study possible