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Table 1 Study characteristics of articles included in the meta-analysis and/or qualitative synthesis

From: The impact of repeated vaccination on influenza vaccine effectiveness: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, publication year Country Study design Current season Prior season Influenza type Age group
Jimenez-Jorge et al., 2012 [19] Spain Test-negative case-control 2010–2011 2009–2010 H1N1 All ages
Martinez-Baz et al., 2013 [20] Spain Test-negative case-control 2010–2011 2009–2010 H1N1 All ages
Skowronski et al., 2012 [28] Canada Test-negative case-control 2010–2011 2009–2010 H1N1 All ages
Syrjanen et al., 2014 [33] Finland Cohort 2010–2011 2009–2010 H1N1 18–75 years
Fu et al., 2015 [17] China Case-control 2012–2013 2011–2012 H1N1 (a) 20–35 months, 1 current dose; (b) 20–35 months, 2 current doses; (c) 3–6 years
Gaglani et al., 2016 [18] USA Test-negative case-control 2013–2014 2009–2010 to 2012–2013 H1N1 ≥ 9 years
Ohmit et al., 2016 [22] USA Prospective cohort study 2013–2014 2012–2013 H1N1 (a) 9 and older; (b) under 9 years
Thompson et al., 2014b [35] USA Case-control 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 2009–2010 and 2010–2011 H1N1, H3N2, B Mean age 30 years
Skowronski et al., 2014b [29] Canada Test-negative case-control 2011–2012 2010–2011 H1N1, H3N2, B ≥ 2 years
Rondy et al., 2015 [25] France, Italy, Lithuania, Spain Test-negative case-control 2012–2013 2011–2012 H1N1, H3N2, B ≥ 18 years
Skowronski et al., 2014a [27] Canada Test-negative case-control 2012–2013 2011–2012 H1N1, H3N2, B ≥ 2 years
Valenciano et al., 2016 [36] Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain Test-negative case-control 2014–2015 2013–2014 H1N1, H3N2, B All ages
Pebody et al., 2013 [24] UK Test-negative case-control 2010–2011 2009–2010 H1N1, B All ages
Skowronski et al., 2015 [30] Canada Test-negative case-control 2013–2014 2012–2013 H1N1, B ≥ 2 years
McLean et al., 2014 [6] USA Test-negative case-control 2004–2005 to 2012–2013 Variable H3N2, B (a) 9 to 49; (b) 50 and older
McLean et al., 2015 [21] USA Test-negative case-control 2012–2013 2011–2012 H3N2, B (a) 9 to 17; (b) 18 to 49; (c) 50 to 64; (d) 65 and older
Thompson et al., 2016 [34] USA Test-negative case-control 2011–2012 and 2012–2013 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 H3N2, B 2–8 years, 1 dose prior season
Skowronski et al., 2016 [7] Canada Test-negative case-control 2014–2015 2013–2014 H3N2, B ≥ 2 years
Simpson et al., 2015a[26] Scotland Test-negative case-control 2008–2009 9 prior seasons All influenza All ages
Castilla et al., 2011a [15] Spain Nested test-negative case- control 2010–2011 2009–2010 All influenza All ages
Ohmit et al., 2014 [8] USA Test-negative case-control 2011–2012 2010–2011 H3N2 ≥ 9 years
Ohmit et al., 2015a [23] USA Prospective cohort study 2012–2013 2011–2012 All influenza All ages
Smithgall et al., 2016a [31] USA Surveillance 2013–2014 2012–2013 All influenza All ages
Castilla et al., 2016a [16] Spain Test-negative case-control 2014–2015 2013–2014 and 2012–2013 All influenza All ages
Sullivan and Kelly, 2013a [32] Australia Re-analysis (a) Southern Hemisphere 2011; (b) Southern Hemisphere 2012 Southern Hemisphere 2010 and 2011 All influenza All ages
Petrie et al., 2016 [37] USA Test-negative case-control 2014–2015 2013–2014 H3N2 ≥ 18 years
  1. aStudy not included in meta-analysis
  2. bStudy population included pregnant women only