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Table 3 Factors associated with the probability of belonging to a molecular transmission cluster: results from a multivariable logistic regression model

From: HIV-1 molecular transmission clusters in nine European countries and Canada: association with demographic and clinical factors

Covariate Odds ratio 95% CI P-value
Sex
 Male a 1   
 Female 0.66 (0.56–0.78) < 0.001
 Unknown 0.44 (0.04–5.10) 0.514
Subtype
 B a 1   
 CRF02_AG 0.70 (0.53–0.94) 0.016
 C 0.51 (0.38–0.69) < 0.001
 A 0.65 (0.48–0.89) 0.007
 CRF01_AE 0.36 (0.24–0.54) < 0.001
 Other (D,F,G) 1.04 (0.76–1.42) 0.814
Country
 Germany a 1   
 Canada 0.91 (0.66–1.26) 0.584
 Spain 0.7 (0.59–0.83) < 0.001
 Norway 0.68 (0.49–0.94) 0.021
 Austria 0.68 (0.50–0.92) 0.014
 UK 0.5 (0.36–0.69) < 0.001
 Italy 0.39 (0.29–0.53) < 0.001
 France 0.23 (0.06–0.86) 0.028
 Netherlands 0.2 (0.09–0.45) < 0.001
 Greece 0.17 (0.07–0.41) < 0.001
Age at sample date
 Per 10-year increase 0.79 (0.75–0.84) < 0.001
Sampling date
 1987–2002 a 1   
 2003–2006 2.01 (1.67–2.43) < 0.001
 2007–2008 2.38 (1.95–2.91) < 0.001
 2009–2011 2.61 (2.12–3.19) < 0.001
Seroconverter
 No a 1   
 Yes 1.44 (1.23–1.69) < 0.001
Risk group
 MSM a 1   
 PWID 0.62 (0.52–0.74) < 0.001
 MSW 0.69 (0.59–0.80) < 0.001
 Haemophiliacs 0.27 (0.06–1.27) 0.097
 Other – unknown 0.55 (0.42–0.72) < 0.001
Ethnicity
 White a 1   
 Black 0.44 (0.32–0.62) < 0.001
 Other 0.70 (0.55–0.88) 0.002
 Unknown 0.91 (0.72–1.17) 0.467
ART-naïve at sampling
 No a 1   
 Yes 1.19 (1.04–1.35) 0.010
  1. Abbreviations: MSM men who have sex with men, PWID people who inject drugs, MSW men who have sex with men and women
  2. a Reference category