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Table 1 Implementation of malaria control tools/strategies in Zanzibar between 2002 and 2016

From: From high to low malaria transmission in Zanzibar—challenges and opportunities to achieve elimination

Year, month Interventions
2002, November New antimalarial treatment policy: ACT; 1st line: ASAQ, 2nd line: AL
2003, September ACT deployment in all public health facilities.
2004 ITN distribution, geographically focused Intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp)
2005, September LLIN universal distribution to all children < 5 years and pregnant women
2006, July IRS (pyrethroid) aiming at annual universal coverage, in March before the main transmission season (after 2006)
2006 RDT provision to all public health facilities. LLIN provision initiated to all pregnant women and infants (9 months old) in MCH clinics
2008 LLIN universal distribution—two nets per household
2009 New antimalarial treatment policy: 1st line: ASAQ, 2nd line: quinine Weekly reporting of malaria cases by mobile phone from health care facilities (MEEDS)
2012 LLIN universal distribution—two nets per household IRS policy change: targeting hotspots only (carbamate 2012–2014, pirimiphos-methyl 2015-) Malaria case investigation and reactive household RDT screening and LLIN distribution
2015 RDT and ACT provision to private health facilities (AMFm programme) Intermittent screening and treatment in pregnancy (ISTp) replacing IPTp
2016 Larviciding in few selected sites New antimalarial treatment policy: ACT + primaquine (single low dose)
  1. ACT artemisinin-based combination therapy, ASAQ artesunate-amodiaquine, AL arthemeter-lumefantrine, ITN insecticide-treated net, IRS indoor residual spraying, RDT rapid diagnostic test, LLIN long-lasting insecticidal net, MEEDS malaria early epidemic detection system, AMFm affordable medicines for malaria, MCH mother and child health