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Table 2 Effect of the UPBEAT diet and physical activity lifestyle intervention on selecteda metabolic traits; n = 1158

From: The effect of a lifestyle intervention in obese pregnant women on gestational metabolic profiles: findings from the UK Pregnancies Better Eating and Activity Trial (UPBEAT) randomised controlled trial

  Difference in mean rate of change in metabolic traits per 4 weeks of gestation between 16 and 36 weeks comparing women receiving intervention to control group (95% confidence intervals)b
In original units (see first column) per 4 weeks, median (IQR) In SD units per 4 weeks,c median (IQR)
Extremely large VLDL
 Concentration of chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL particles, mol/L – 5.430 × 10– 12 (– 8.323 × 10– 12 to – 2.537 × 10– 12) – 0.041 (– 0.065 to – 0.018)
 Total lipids in chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.001 (– 0.002 to – 5.322 × 10– 4) – 0.041 (– 0.064 to – 0.018)
 Phospholipids in chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL, mmol/L – 1.457 × 10– 4 (– 2.287 × 10– 4 to – 6.274 × 10– 5) – 0.038 (– 0.061 to – 0.015)
 Total cholesterol in chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL, mmol/L – 1.623 × 10– 4 (– 2.725 × 10– 4 to – 5.212 × 10– 5) – 0.032 (– 0.055 to – 0.009)
 Cholesterol esters in chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL, mmol/L – 6.952 × 10– 5 (– 1.289 × 10– 4 to – 1.015 × 10– 5) – 0.025 (– 0.049 to – 0.002)
 Free cholesterol in chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL, mmol/L – 9.276 × 10– 5 (– 1.468 × 10– 4 to – 3.868 × 10– 5) – 0.037 (– 0.059 to – 0.014)
 Triglycerides in chylomicrons and extremely large VLDL, mmol/L – 8.450 × 10– 4 (– 0.001 to – 4.077 × 10– 4) – 0.043 (– 0.066 to – 0.020)
Very large VLDL
 Concentration of very large VLDL particles, mol/L – 2.919 × 10– 11 (– 4.656 × 10– 11 to – 1.183 × 10– 11) – 0.033 (– 0.054 to – 0.012)
 Total lipids in very large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.003 (– 0.005 to – 0.001) – 0.033 (– 0.054 to – 0.012)
 Phospholipids in very large VLDL, mmol/L – 4.618 × 10– 4 (– 7.453 × 10– 4 to – 1.782 × 10– 4) – 0.032 (– 0.053 to – 0.011)
 Total cholesterol in very large VLDL, mmol/L – 4.869 × 10– 4 (– 8.058 × 10– 4 to – 1.681 × 10– 4) – 0.031 (– 0.052 to – 0.009)
 Cholesterol esters in very large VLDL, mmol/L – 2.409 × 10– 4 (– 4.085 × 10– 4 to – 7.328 × 10– 5) – 0.029 (– 0.051 to – 0.007)
 Free cholesterol in very large VLDL, mmol/L – 2.459 × 10– 4 (– 3.986 × 10– 4 to – 9.316 × 10– 5) – 0.032 (– 0.054 to – 0.010)
 Triglycerides in very large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.002 (– 0.003 to – 7.781 × 10– 4) – 0.034 (– 0.055 to – 0.012)
Large VLDL
 Concentration of large VLDL particles, mol/L – 1.436 × 10– 10 (– 2.419 × 10– 10 to – 4.524 × 10– 11) – 0.028 (– 0.049 to – 0.008)
 Total lipids in large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.008 (– 0.014 to – 0.003) – 0.028 (– 0.049 to – 0.007)
 Phospholipids in large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.001 (– 0.003 to – 4.202 × 10– 4) – 0.027 (– 0.048 to – 0.006)
 Total cholesterol in large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.002 (– 0.003 to – 3.658 × 10– 4) – 0.025 (– 0.046 to – 0.004)
 Cholesterol esters in large VLDL, mmol/L – 6.322 × 10– 4 (– 0.001 to – 4.684 × 10– 5) – 0.021 (– 0.042 to 5.042 × 10– 4)
 Free cholesterol in large VLDL, mmol/L – 9.788 × 10– 4 (– 0.002 to – 3.053 × 10– 4) – 0.028 (– 0.049 to – 0.007)
 Triglycerides in large VLDL, mmol/L – 0.005 (– 0.009 to – 0.002) – 0.029 (– 0.050 to – 0.009)
Medium VLDL   
 Concentration of medium VLDL particles, mol/L – 2.706 × 10– 10 (– 5.176 × 10– 10 to – 2.363 × 10– 11) – 0.020 (– 0.041 to 4.479 × 10– 4)
 Total lipids in medium VLDL, mmol/L – 0.009 (– 0.017 to – 5.203 × 10– 4) – 0.020 (– 0.040 to 0.001)
 Phospholipids in medium VLDL, mmol/L – 0.002 (– 0.003 to 2.571 × 10– 5) – 0.018 (– 0.038 to 0.003)
 Total cholesterol in medium VLDL, mmol/L – 0.001 (– 0.004 to 6.072 × 10– 4) – 0.012 (– 0.034 to 0.009)
 Cholesterol esters in medium VLDL, mmol/L – 3.934 × 10– 4 (– 0.001 to 6.747 × 10– 4) – 0.006 (– 0.028 to 0.017)
 Free cholesterol in medium VLDL, mmol/L – 0.001 (– 0.002 to – 5.763 × 10– 6) – 0.018 (– 0.039 to 0.002)
 Triglycerides in medium VLDL, mmol/L – 0.006 (– 0.010 to – 0.001) – 0.023 (– 0.043 to – 0.002)
Other lipids, lipoproteins affected by the intervention
 Triglycerides in very large HDL, mmol/L – 2.479 × 10– 4 (– 4.714 × 10– 4 to – 2.436 × 10– 5) – 0.024 (– 0.046 to – 0.001)
 Phospholipids in small HDL, mmol/L – 0.002 (– 0.004 to – 1.363 × 10– 4) – 0.022 (– 0.042 to – 0.001)
 Mean diameter for VLDL particles, nm – 0.031 (– 0.054 to – 0.008) – 0.027 (– 0.048 to – 0.007)
 Serum total triglycerides, mol/L – 0.015 (– 0.031 to 8.645 × 10– 4) – 0.017 (– 0.038 to 0.003)
 Triglycerides in VLDL, mmol/L – 0.015 (– 0.028 to – 0.002) – 0.022 (– 0.042 to – 0.001)
 Ratio of triglycerides to phosphoglycerides – 0.005 (– 0.009 to – 6.198 × 10– 4) – 0.022 (– 0.042 to – 0.001)
 Estimated degree of unsaturation 0.001 (1.229 × 10– 4 to 0.002) 0.027 (0.006 to 0.048)
 Ratio of 18:2 linoleic acid to total fatty acids, % 0.069 (0.013 to 0.126) 0.028 (0.007 to 0.049)
 Ratio of omega-6 fatty acids to total fatty acids, % 0.077 (0.023 to 0.131) 0.031 (0.011 to 0.051)
 Ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids to total fatty acids, % 0.079 (0.020 to 0.138) 0.028 (0.009 to 0.047)
 Ratio of saturated fatty acids to total fatty acids, % – 0.049 (– 0.083 to – 0.015) – 0.035 (– 0.058 to – 0.012)
Other traits affected by the intervention
 Lactate, mmol/L – 0.017 (– 0.027 to – 0.006) – 0.037 (– 0.061 to – 0.013)
 Pyruvate, mmol/L – 0.002 (– 0.003 to – 6.028 × 10– 4) – 0.039 (– 0.064 to – 0.014)
 Alanine, mmol/L – 0.001 (– 0.002 to – 2.708 × 10– 5) – 0.024 (– 0.050 to 0.002)
 Acetate, mmol/L 3.081 × 10– 4 (7.541 × 10– 5 to 5.408 × 10– 4) 0.035 (0.009 to 0.062)
  1. aResults are the difference in mean rate of change of each trait in original units (2nd column) and SD units (third column) per 4-weeks of gestation between 16 and 36 weeks for selected metabolic traits where p < 0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons or because they are within the same broad group of metabolites and/or have similar magnitudes of associations (point estimates) as other metabolites with smaller p values. Complete results for all traits assessed in their original units, together with exact p values, are shown in Additional file 1: Table S5 and in SD units in Fig. 3 in the main paper
  2. b95% CIs are exact and not adjusted for multiple testing
  3. cSD units are based on the standard deviation values for each metabolite in the control group of women
  4. HDL high-density lipoprotein, IDL intermediate-density lipoprotein, IQR interquartile range, LDL low-density lipoprotein, n number, VLDL very low-density lipoprotein, SD standard deviation