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Table 2 Association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and prevalence of hepatic steatosis defined by abdominal ultrasound, Fenland Study

From: The association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and hepatic steatosis: cross-sectional analysis of two independent studies, the UK Fenland Study and the Swiss CoLaus Study

  Prevalence ratio (95% CI) across quintiles of pyramid-based Mediterranean diet score* p trend Prevalence ratio (95% CI) per SD difference*
Q1 Q2 Q3 Q4 Q5
Range of scores 3.30–7.84 7.85–8.73 8.74–9.46 9.47–10.28 10.29–14.03   
N total 1929 1929 1929 1929 1929   
N cases (score ≥ 5 of 3 to 12) 602 547 450 391 313   
 Multivariable + SES + dietary factor 1.00 (ref.) 0.99 (0.86, 1.12) 0.82 (0.71, 0.95) 0.76 (0.65, 0.88) 0.67 (0.56, 0.78) < 0.001 0.86 (0.81, 0.90)
 Multivariable + BMI 1.00 (ref.) 1.02 (0.89, 1.16) 0.94 (0.81, 1.08) 0.90 (0.77, 1.04) 0.88 (0.75, 1.04) 0.043 0.95 (0.90, 1.00)
  1. SES socio-economic status, BMI body mass index
  2. *In categorical analysis, the population was divided into five groups by quintiles (Q1–Q5) of the Mediterranean diet score, standard deviation is 1.43 for the Mediterranean diet score
  3. Adjusted for age (years), test sites (Cambridge, Ely, and Wisbech), sex, marital status (single, married, and divorced/widowed), occupational status (routine and professional jobs), education level (compulsory, secondary, and university), household income (< £20,000, £20,000–40,000, and > £40,000), smoking status (never, former, and current), energy intake (kcal/day), and physical activity energy expenditure (kcal/day)
  4. Further adjusted for BMI. Results of further adjustment for waist circumference were broadly in line with of the further adjustment for BMI (data not shown)