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Table 1 Study participants’ characteristics at admission

From: Mortality after inpatient treatment for diarrhea in children: a cohort study

  All eligible admissions (N = 17,442)a KHDSS resident admissions with diarrhea (N = 2626) KHDSS resident admissions without diarrhea (N = 8114) P value
Demographics
 Age in months, median (IQR) 18 (9–32) 13 (8–21) 22 (11–37) < 0.001
 Sex (female) 7518 (43) 1109 (42) 3545 (44) 0.19
 Prior hospital admission 2782 (16) 347 (13) 1565 (19) < 0.001
Clinical features
 Axillary temp < 36 °C 596 (3.4) 79 (3.0) 305 (3.8) 0.02
 Axillary temp 36 to 37.5 °C 13,840 (79) 1154 (44) 3339 (42)
 Axillary temp > 37.5 °C 3006 (17) 1393 (53) 4470 (55)
 Tachypneab 6368 (37) 768 (29) 3144 (39) < 0.001
 Tachycardiac 8255 (47) 1049 (40) 4171 (51) < 0.001
 Indrawing 4609 (26) 404 (15) 2362 (29) < 0.001
 Hypoxia (SaO2 < 90%) 907 (5.2) 75 (2.9) 393 (4.8) < 0.001
 Capillary refill > 2 s 604 (3.5) 152 (5.8) 143 (1.8) < 0.001
 Temperature gradient 1045 (6.0) 264 (10) 306 (3.8) < 0.001
 Weak pulse 496 (2.8) 151 (5.6) 92 (1.1) < 0.001
 Lethargy 2068 (12) 598 (23) 665 (8.2) < 0.001
 Sunken eyes 2552 (15) 1251 (48) 186 (2.3) < 0.001
 Reduced skin turgor 1540 (8.8) 733 (28) 91 (1.1) < 0.001
 No dehydration 12,074 (69) 1068 (41) 6568 (81) < 0.001
 Some dehydration 3466 (20) 674 (26) 1399 (17)
 Severe dehydration 1902 (11) 884 (34) 147 (1.8)
 Shockd 55 (0.3) 17 (0.7) 8 (0.1) < 0.001
 Impaired consciousnesse 1737 (10) 178 (6.8) 763 (9.4) < 0.001
Laboratory features
 HIV antibody positive 719 (4.1) 130 (5.0) 209 (2.6) < 0.001
 Malaria slide positive 2352 (13) 110 (4.2) 1431 (18) < 0.001
 Bacteremia 634 (3.6) 88 (3.4) 282 (3.5) 0.76
 Severe anemia (Hb < 5 g/dL) 1.301 (7.5) 100 (3.8) 638 (7.9) < 0.001
 Leucopeniaf (WBC < 4 × 109/L) 164 (1.0) 25 (1.0) 65 (0.8) < 0.001
 Leucocytosis (WBC > 12 × 109/L) 9265 (53) 1323 (50) 4372 (54)
Nutritional status
 Kwashiorkor 807 (4.6) 117 (4.5) 243 (3.0) < 0.001
 MUAC (cm) ± SD 13.5 ± 1.8 13.0 ± 1.6 13.9 ± 1.7 < 0.001
 HAZ ± SD − 1.4 ± 1.7 − 1.4 ± 1.7 − 1.3 ± 1.6 0.09
  1. KHDSS Kilifi Health and Demographic Surveillance System, SD standard deviation, MUAC mid-upper arm circumference. aEligible admissions were children admitted from 2007 to 2015 aged between 2 and 59 months. bTachypnea was defined as respiration rate > 50 for children < 12 months and > 40 breaths/min for children ≥ 12 months. cTachycardia was defined as heart rate > 180 for children < 12 months and > 140 beats/min for children ≥ 12 months. dShock was defined as unconscious or weak pulse volume or the presence of temperature gradient or capillary refill > 3 s. eImpaired consciousness level if “prostrate” or “unconscious.” fNormal white blood cell range (WBC) was 4 to 12 × 109/L