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Table 2 Univariable and multivariable analyses of factors associated with inpatient death amongst children admitted with diarrhea

From: Mortality after inpatient treatment for diarrhea in children: a cohort study

  Deaths (N = 121)a Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Crude RR 95% CI P value Adjusted RR 95% CI P value
Demographics
 Age (months) 1.00 0.98–1.01 0.98    
 Sex (female) 61 (50) 1.39 0.98–1.97 0.06    
 Prior hospital admission 23 (19) 1.54 0.99–2.39 0.05    
Clinical features
 Persistent diarrhea 6 (5.0) 2.53 1.17–5.49 0.02    
 Bloody diarrhea 3 (2.5) 1.15 0.38–3.50 0.81    
 Dehydration status
  No dehydration 22 (18) 1.0 Reference     
  Some dehydration 33 (27) 2.38 1.40–4.04 0.001    
  Severe dehydration 66 (55) 3.62 2.26–5.82 < 0.001    
 Tachypneab 62 (51) 2.58 1.82–3.66 < 0.001 1.98 1.34–2.93 0.001
 Tachycardiac 43 (36) 0.86 0.60–1.24 0.42    
 Lower chest wall indrawing 46 (38) 3.37 2.37–4.79 < 0.001    
 Hypoxia (SaO2 < 90%) 25 (21) 8.86 6.09–12.89 < 0.001    
 Capillary refill > 2 s 48 (40) 10.70 7.73–14.82 < 0.001 2.31 1.35–3.95 0.002
 Temperature gradient 56 (46) 7.71 5.52–10.76 < 0.001    
 Weak pulse 47 (39) 10.41 7.51–14.43 < 0.001    
 Impaired consciousnessd 53 (44) 10.72 7.74–14.84 < 0.001 3.29 195–5.54 < 0.001
Systematic laboratory test features
 HIV antibody positive 24 (20) 5.59 3. 65–8.58 < 0.001 2.40 1.44–3.99 0.001
 Bacteremia 24 (20) 7.14 4.82–10.57 < 0.001 2.05 1.18–3.57 0.01
 Malaria slide positive 2 (1.7) 0.43 0. 11–1.71 0.23    
 Severe anemia (Hb < 5 g/dL) 16 (13) 3.98 2.43–6.50 < 0.001    
 Leucopeniae (WBC < 4 × 109/L) 8 (6.6) 13.93 6.98–27.78 < 0.001    
 Leucocytosis (WBC > 12 × 109/L) 77 (64) 2.53 1. 62–3.95 < 0.001 2.24 1.41–3.58 0.001
Nutritional status
 Kwashiorkor 19 (16) 3.99 2.54–6.29 < 0.001    
 MUAC per centimeter 0.61 0.59–0.64 < 0.001 0.64 0.57–0.71 < 0.001
 Height-for-age z score 0.65 0.59–0.73 < 0.001    
Model performance
 AUC (95% CI)      0.89 (086–0.93)
 AIC      1655.5
  1. Variables’ missing results in the multivariable model were dropped using the stepwise approach. AUC area under receiver operating characteristics, AIC Akaike information criterion. aNumber of deaths and proportion of deaths. bTachypnea was defined as respiration rate > 50 for children < 12 months and > 40 breaths/min for children ≥ 12 months. cTachycardia was defined as heart rate > 180 for children < 12 months and > 140 beats/min for children ≥ 12 months. dImpaired consciousness if “prostrate” or “unconscious.” eNormal white blood cells (WBC) were 4 to 12 × 109/L