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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable analyses of factors associated with post-discharge deaths amongst children admitted with diarrhea and residents of KHDSS

From: Mortality after inpatient treatment for diarrhea in children: a cohort study

  Deaths (N = 49)a Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
Crude HR 95% CI P value Adjusted HR 95% CI P value
Demographic features
 Age (months) 1.00 0.97–1.02 0.80    
 Sex (female) 22 (45) 1.12 0.64–1.96 0.70    
 Prior hospital admission 20 (41) 4.71 2.66–8.32 < 0.001 3.11 1.57–6.17 0.001
Clinical features
 Persistent diarrhea 3 (6.1) 3.51 1.11–11.13 0.03    
 Bloody diarrhea 1 (2.0) 0.90 0.12–6.46 0.92    
 Dehydration status
  No dehydration 16 (33) 1.0 Reference     
  Some dehydration 9 (18) 0.90 0.40–2.04 0.80    
  Severe dehydration 24 (49) 1.92 1.02–3.61 0.04    
 Tachypneab 18 (37) 1.50 0.83–2.68 0.18    
 Tachycardiac 19 (39) 0.95 0.53–1.68 0.85    
 Lower chest wall indrawing 16 (33) 2.90 1.59–5.26 < 0.001 2.00 1.03–3.79 0.04
 Hypoxia (SaO2 < 90%) 2 (4.1) 2.03 0.49–8.34 0.33    
 Capillary refill > 2 s 6 (12) 3.16 1.35–7.43 0.008    
 Temperature gradient 7 (14) 1.85 0.83–4.12 0.13    
 Weak pulse 5 (10) 2.50 1.00–6.30 0.05    
 Impaired consciousnessd 6 (12) 2.75 1.17–6.45 0.02    
Systematic lab test features
 HIV antibody positive 18 (37) 13.76 7.60–24.91 < 0.001 5.02 2.31–10.92 < 0.001
 Bacteremia 6 (12) 5.41 2.27–12.89 < 0.001 3.69 1.64–10.14 0.01
 Malaria slide positive 3 (6.1) 1.52 0.47–4.93 0.48    
 Severe anemia (Hb < 5 g/dL) 6 (12) 4.20 1.78–9.90 0.001    
 Leucopeniae (WBC < 4 × 109/L) 1 (2.0) 4.07 0.52–32.09 0.18    
 Leucocytosis (WBC > 12 × 109/L) 30 (61) 1.74 0.94–3.23 0.08    
Nutritional status
 Kwashiorkor 4 (8.2) 2.21 0.80–6.11 0.13    
 MUAC per centimeter   0.55 0.47–0.64 < 0.001 0.67 0.56–0.81 < 0.001
 Height-for-age z score   0.62 0.52–0.73 < 0.001    
Model performance
 AUC (95% CI)      0.87 (0.81–0.94)
 AIC      637.9
  1. Variables’ missing results in the multivariable model were dropped using the stepwise approach. AUC area under receiver operating characteristics, AIC Akaike information criterion. aNumber of deaths and proportion of post-discharge deaths. bTachypnea was defined as respiration rate > 50 for children < 12 months and > 40 breaths/min for children ≥ 12 months. cTachycardia was defined as heart rate > 180 for children< 12 months and > 140 beats/min for children ≥ 12 months. dImpaired consciousness if “prostrate” or “unconscious.” eNormal white blood cell (WBC) count was 4 to 12 × 109/L