Skip to main content

Table 3 Effect of pregnancy and infancy nutritional supplementation on infant thymic index

From: Thymic size is increased by infancy, but not pregnancy, nutritional supplementation in rural Gambian children: a randomized clinical trial

  Effect size (%)a 95% CI P value
Week 1 only
 Unadjusted
  PE − 5.03 − 9.75, − 0.05 0.05
  MMN 2.16 − 2.91, 7.52 0.41
 Model 1b
  PE − 3.49 − 8.23,1.49 0.17
  MMN 1.68 − 3.28, 6.93 0.51
All time points to infant age < 6 months
 Unadjusted
  PE − 2.07 − 5.14, 1.12 0.20
  MMN 1.71 − 1.49, 5.01 0.30
 Model 1
  PE − 0.89 − 3.85, 2.16 0.56
  MMN 2.10 − 0.95, 5.24 0.18
Combined maternal and infant—week 52 only
 Unadjusted
  PE − 2.19 − 6.84, 2.71 0.38
  MMN 2.13 − 2.72, 7.25 0.39
  Infant MMN 8.08 2.92, 13.48 0.002
 Model 1
  PE − 1.97 − 6.64, 2.92 0.42
  MMN 2.31 − 2.56, 7.43 0.36
  Infant MMN 8.50 3.28, 13.97 0.001
 Model 2c
  PE − 1.91 − 6.56, 2.97 0.44
  MMN 2.06 − 2.79, 7.14 0.41
  Infant MMN 7.99 2.81, 13.43 0.002
Infant supplement only
 Unadjusted 8.04 2.89, 13.44 0.002
 Model 1 8.80 3.20, 13.81 0.001
 Model 2 8.10 2.92, 13.55 0.002
  1. Abbreviations: PE protein energy, MMN multiple micronutrients
  2. aEffect size computed as 100 × [antilog(β) − 1] where β is the regression coefficient from regression models
  3. bModel 1 adjusted for infant size, infant age, infant sex, season of measurement and maternal size (BMI and height) and (as relevant) maternal and infant compliance to supplement
  4. cModel 2 (for data up to week 52 only) adjusted for the same variables as model 1, but also infant age at weaning (defined as the age of introduction of non-breast milk feeds) and infant morbidity (sum of morbidity episodes across the first year of life)