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Table 1 Basic descriptive and results of unadjusted logistic regression for socio-demographic, maternal, pregnancy, labour, and delivery risk factors for all births including stillbirths between January and December 2016 in the Indian state of Bihar. OR denotes odds ratio and CI denotes confidence interval

From: Deferred and referred deliveries contribute to stillbirths in the Indian state of Bihar: results from a population-based survey of all births

Risk factor   All births
N = 20,152 (%)
Stillbirths
N = 275 (%)
Unadjusted OR (95% CI)
Socio-demographics
 Place of residence Rural 18,388 (91.3%) 262 (95.3%) 1.95 (1.11–3.41)
Urban 1764 (8.8%) 13 (4.7%) 1.00
 Wealth index quartile1 I 5013 (24.9%) 75 (27.5%) 1.22 (0.87–1.71)
II 5003 (24.9%) 68 (24.9%) 1.11 (0.78–1.57)
III 5038 (25.1%) 68 (24.9%) 1.10 (0.78–1.56)
IV 5048 (25.1%) 62 (22.7%) 1.00
 Type of cooking fuel used2 Solid 7033 (34.9%) 91 (33.2%) 1.00
Non-solid 13,108 (65.1%) 183 (66.8%) 1.08 (0.84–1.39)
Maternal
 Maternal age3 15–19 years 939 (4.7%) 15 (5.5%) 1.00
20–24 years 8418 (41.8%) 131 (47.6%) 0.97 (0.57–1.67)
25–29 years 7656 (38.0%) 86 (31.3%) 0.70 (0.40–1.22)
≥ 30 years 3136 (15.6%) 43 (15.6%) 0.86 (0.47–1.55)
 Any tobacco use ever Yes 527 (2.6%) 9 (3.3%) 1.26 (0.65–2.47)
No 19,625 (97.4%) 266 (96.7%) 1.00
 First born Yes 4876 (24.2%) 143 (52.0%) 3.47 (2.73–4.40)
No 15,276 (75.8%) 132 (48.0%) 1.00
 Previous history of stillbirth Yes 980 (4.9%) 19 (6.9%) 1.46 (0.91–2.34)
No 19,172 (95.1%) 256 (93.1%) 1.00
 Ever miscarriage4 Yes 2753 (13.7%) 41 (15.0%) 1.11 (0.80–1.56)
No 17,389 (86.3%) 233 (85.0%) 1.00
 Diabetes mellitus irrespective of pregnancy 5 Yes 66 (0.3%) 4 (1.5%) 4.79 (1.73–13.26)
No 19,714 (99.7%) 262 (98.5%) 1.00
 Hypertension irrespective of pregnancy6 Yes 344 (1.7%) 9 (3.4%) 2.02 (1.03–3.95)
No 19,465 (98.3%) 256 (96.6%) 1.00
Pregnancy
 At least one antenatal care visit during pregnancy7 Yes 16,363 (81.2%) 212 (78.2%) 1.00
No 3784 (18.8%) 59 (21.8%) 1.21 (0.90–1.61)
 Received 2 tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy8 Yes 16,295 (81.1%) 204 (74.2%) 1.00
No 3806 (18.9%) 71 (25.8%) 1.50 (1.14–1.97)
 Consumed iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy9 Yes 8091 (40.4%) 84 (30.8%) 1.00
No 11,941 (59.6%) 189 (69.2%) 1.53 (1.18–1.99)
 Pregnancy with multiple foetuses Yes 354 (1.8%) 18 (6.6%) 4.07 (2.50–6.65)
No 19,798 (98.2%) 257 (93.5%) 1.00
 Hypertension in the last trimester of pregnancy10 Yes 515 (2.6%) 11 (4.1%) 1.63 (0.89–3.01)
No 19,353 (97.4%) 255 (95.9%) 1.00
 Malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy11 Yes 455 (2.3%) 6 (2.2%) 0.96 (0.43–2.18)
No 19,328 (97.7%) 264 (97.8%) 1.00
 Syphilis during pregnancy12 Yes 84 (0.4%) 1 (0.4%) 0.88 (0.12–6.33)
Do not know 1169 (5.8%) 18 (6.6%) 1.14 (0.70–1.84)
No 18,898 (93.8%) 256 (93.1%) 1.00
 Fever in the last 3 months of pregnancy13 Yes 3596 (18.0%) 49 (18.0%) 1.00 (0.73–1.36)
No 16,353 (82.0%) 223 (82.0%) 1.00
 Convulsions in the last 3 months of pregnancy14 Yes 2245 (11.3%) 30 (11.1%) 0.98 (0.67–1.43)
No 17,573 (88.7%) 240 (88.9%) 1.00
 Mother was informed that the baby was not growing adequately inside the womb15 Yes 703 (3.5%) 24 (8.8%) 2.68 (1.75–4.10)
No 19,209 (96.5%) 250 (91.2%) 1.00
 Gestation period 7 months 179 (0.9%) 39 (14.2%) 27.7 (18.9–40.6)
> 7–8 months 378 (1.9%) 41 (14.9%) 12.1 (8.5–17.2)
> 8 months 19,595 (97.2%) 195 (70.9%) 1.00
Labour
 Mother had come for delivery earlier but was asked to come later for delivery (deferred delivery)13 Yes 175 (0.9%) 15 (5.5%) 7.06 (4.10–12.16)
No 19,774 (99.1%) 259 (94.5%) 1.00
 Spontaneous labour16 Yes 14,801 (74.0%) 164 (63.6%) 1.00
No 5214 (26.1%) 94 (36.4%) 1.64 (1.27–2.12)
 Foul smelling discharge17 Yes 1005 (5.0%) 29 (10.6%) 2.27 (1.53–3.35)
No 19,014 (95.0%) 246 (89.5) 1.00
Delivery
 Place of delivery18 Public facility 10,712 (53.2%) 89 (33.0%) 1.00
Private facility 3394 (16.9%) 80 (29.6%) 2.88 (2.13–3.91)
Home 6023 (29.9%) 101 (37.4%) 2.04 (1.53–2.71)
 Mother had gone to a health facility for delivery but delivered in another facility (referred delivery)19 Yes 827 (5.9%) 46 (27.5%) 6.40 (4.53–9.06)
No 13,275 (94.1%) 121 (72.5%) 1.00
 Vaginal delivery20 Yes 18,096 (89.9%) 229 (86.1%) 0.69 (0.49–0.98)
No 2028 (10.1%) 37 (13.9%) 1.00
 Push/forceful pull done during delivery by the health provider21 Yes 1025 (5.2%) 60 (22.8%) 5.68 (4.23–7.63)
No 18,736 (94.8%) 203 (77.2%) 1.00
 Entangled cord around the baby’s neck22 Yes 782 (3.9%) 21 (7.6%) 2.03 (1.29–3.19)
Do not know 1766 (8.8%) 18 (6.6%) 0.76 (0.47–1.23)
No 17,587 (87.4%) 236 (85.8%) 1.00
 Breech position of the baby23 Yes 674 (3.4%) 41 (15.5%) 5.49 (3.90–7.73)
No 19,111 (96.6%) 223 (84.5%) 1.00
 Birthweight of the baby (kilogrammes)24 ≥2.0 12,896 (64.7%) 37 (14.3%) 1.00
< 2.0 582 (2.9%) 3 (1.2%) 1.80 (0.55–5.86)
Not weighed 4704 (23.6%) 0 (0.0%) (empty)
Do not know if weighed 1766 (8.9%) 219 (84.6%) 49.20 (34.59–69.98)
  1. Data was not available for 150 (0.25%) births, 211 (0.05%), 33 (0.01%), 410 (0.05%), 5372(1.85%), 6343 (1.70%), 75 (0.02%), 851 (0.25%), 9120 (0.60%), 10284 (1.41%), 11369 (1.83%), 121 (0.005%), 13203 (1.01%), 14334 (1.66%), 15240 (1.19%), 16137 (0.68%), 17133 (0.66%), 1823 (0.11%), 194 (0.03%) data shown only for women who delivered in a health facility, 2028 (0.14%), 21391 (1.94%), 2217 (0.08%), 23367 (1.82%), and 24204 (1.01%) birth