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Table 3 Results of sequential multiple logistic regression models for association of antepartum and intrapartum stillbirths with socio-demographic, maternal, pregnancy, labour, and delivery-related risk factors in the Indian state of Bihar. Statistically significant odds ratios are shown in italics in the final model 5

From: Deferred and referred deliveries contribute to stillbirths in the Indian state of Bihar: results from a population-based survey of all births

Risk factor Adjusted odds ratio for stillbirth (95% confidence interval)
Model 1* Model 2* Model 3* Model 4* Model 5*
Antepartum stillbirth
 Rural place of residence 3.16 (1.15–8.68) 3.08 (1.12–8.44) 2.81 (1.01–7.77) 3.02 (1.09–8.36) 2.98 (0.92–9.60)
 Boy baby 1.18 (0.83–1.67) 1.31 (0.90–1.88) 1.31 (0.90–1.92) 1.19 (0.82–1.74) 1.09 (0.73–1.61)
 Wealth index quartile
  I 0.81 (0.49–1.33)     
  II 0.83 (0.51–1.37)     
  III 0.87 (0.53–1.43)     
  IV 1.00     
 Maternal age
  15–19 years   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  20–24 years   1.99 (0.79–4.99) 1.92 (0.75–4.91) 2.51 (0.89–7.12) 2.60 (0.90–7.50)
  25–29 years   2.90 (1.08–7.79) 2.57 (0.94–7.01) 3.28 (1.09–9.91) 3.37 (1.09–10.41)
  ≥ 30 years   4.36 (1.50–12.65) 3.86 (1.31–11.34) 5.09 (1.58–16.34) 4.63 (1.39–15.44)
 Solid cooking fuel use   0.86 (0.59–1.25)    
 Any tobacco use ever   2.64 (1.21–5.79) 2.15 (0.94–4.89) 1.80 (0.75–4.33) 1.68 (0.69–4.08)
 First born   5.01 (3.18–7.89) 4.62 (2.86–7.47) 4.29 (2.67–6.88) 4.16 (2.52–6.86)
 Previous history of stillbirth   0.91 (0.37–2.26)    
 Previous history of miscarriage   1.12 (0.67–1.86)    
 Maternal history of diabetes mellitus irrespective of pregnancy   1.50 (0.18–12.79)    
 Maternal history of hypertension irrespective of pregnancy   1.33 (0.38–4.60)    
 No maternal antenatal care visit during pregnancy    1.87 (1.19–2.91) 2.34 (1.51–3.63) 1.99 (1.25–3.16)
 Mother did not receive 2 tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy    1.93 (1.25–2.99) 1.74 (1.12–2.70) 1.47 (0.92–2.35)
 Mother did not consume iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy    1.16 (0.77–1.76)   
 Pregnancy with multiple foetuses    1.36 (0.51–3.67)   
 Maternal high blood pressure in the last trimester of pregnancy    1.09 (0.38–3.17)   
 Mother had malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy    1.16 (0.34–3.94)   
 Mother diagnosed with syphilis during this pregnancy
  No    1.00   
  Yes    3.58 (0.47–27.16)   
  Do not know    1.57 (0.81–3.04)   
 Mother had fever in the last 3 months of pregnancy    0.92 (0.54–1.56)   
 Mother had convulsions in the last 3 months of pregnancy    1.33 (0.77–2.29)   
 Mother was informed that the baby was not growing adequately inside the womb    1.70 (0.83–3.49) 1.38 (0.69–2.77)  
 Gestation period
  7 months    18.58 (10.30–33.52) 20.74 (11.42–37.67) 18.27 (9.61–34.74)
  > 7–8 months    17.00 (10.42–27.71) 17.25 (10.61–28.04) 15.56 (9.27–26.12)
  > 8 months    1.00 1.00 1.00
 Deferred delivery     4.72 (1.88–11.82) 5.61 (2.23–14.13)
 Spontaneous labour     2.17 (1.47–3.20) 2.14 (1.40–3.28)
 Foul smelling discharge     2.45 (1.40–4.26) 2.04 (1.10–3.78)
 Place of delivery
  Public facility      1.00
  Private facility      2.00 (1.15–3.46)
  Home      2.44 (1.51–3.95)
 Vaginal delivery      2.78 (1.20–6.45)
 Push/forceful pull done during delivery by the health provider      4.06 (2.39–6.89)
 Entangled cord around the baby’s neck
  No      1.00
  Yes      1.35 (0.62–2.94)
  Do not know      0.37 (0.13–1.07)
 Breech presentation of the baby      1.82 (0.94–3.52)
Intrapartum stillbirth
 Rural place of residence 1.33 (0.57–3.12) 1.25 (0.54–2.92) 1.13 (0.48–2.65) 1.15 (0.49–2.69) 0.97 (0.41–2.31)
 Boy baby 1.16 (0.78–1.74) 1.20 (0.79–1.81) 1.39 (0.90–2.15) 1.33 (0.86–2.05) 1.20 (0.77–1.85)
 Wealth index quartile
  I 1.20 (0.66–2.15)     
  II 1.38 (0.78–2.45)     
  III 0.87 (0.47–1.64)     
  IV 1.00     
 Maternal age
  15–19 years   1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
  20–24 years   1.13 (0.47–2.69) 1.26 (0.49–3.24) 1.29 (0.50–3.32) 1.27 (0.49–3.29)
  25–29 years   2.35 (0.92–5.99) 2.83 (1.03–7.76) 3.16 (1.15–8.67) 3.33 (1.20–9.25)
  ≥ 30 years   2.47 (0.84–7.23) 3.18 (1.02–9.93) 3.50 (1.12–10.96) 2.73 (0.83–8.93)
 Solid cooking fuel use   1.59 (0.99–2.55) 1.73 (1.05–2.86) 1.70 (1.03–2.79) 1.70 (1.01–2.88)
 Any tobacco use ever   0.40 (0.06–2.92)    
 First born   5.85 (3.50–9.76) 6.30 (3.62–10.94) 6.87 (3.98–11.85) 7.22 (4.09–12.76)
 Previous history of stillbirth   2.33 (1.15–4.72) 2.41 (1.18–4.91) 2.27 (1.11–4.65) 1.92 (0.90–4.07)
 Previous history of miscarriage   1.37 (0.79–2.36)    
 Maternal history of diabetes mellitus irrespective of pregnancy   4.16 (0.78–22.09) 5.73 (1.22–27.01) 4.50 (0.99–20.36) 3.03 (0.63–14.55)
 Maternal history of high blood pressure irrespective of pregnancy   1.32 (0.35–5.05)    
 No maternal antenatal care visit during pregnancy    0.91 (0.49–1.68)   
 Mother did not receive 2 tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy    0.92 (0.49–1.70)   
 Mother did not consume iron folic acid tablets during pregnancy    1.14 (0.73–1.79)   
 Pregnancy with multiple foetuses    3.36 (1.16–9.72) 3.36 (1.17–9.70) 2.73 (0.91–8.21)
Maternal hypertension in the last trimester of pregnancy    0.74 (0.17–3.32)   
 Mother had malaria in the last trimester of pregnancy    0.65 (0.14–2.95)   
 Mother diagnosed with syphilis during this pregnancy
  No    1.00   
  Yes    Empty   
  Do not know    0.87 (0.34–2.21)   
 Mother had fever in the last 3 months of pregnancy    1.62 (0.99–2.66) 1.43 (0.86–2.37) 1.11 (0.66–1.89)
 Mother had convulsions in the last 3 months of pregnancy    0.37 (0.13–1.05) 0.48 (0.19–1.20) 0.38 (0.15–0.97)
 Mother was informed that the baby was not growing adequately inside the womb    1.29 (0.49–3.39)   
 Gestation period
  7 months    6.92 (2.84–16.88) 7.55 (3.15–18.10) 5.31 (2.02–13.91)
  > 7–8 months    4.16 (1.86–9.27) 4.11 (1.85–9.15) 4.14 (1.90–9.04)
  > 8 months    1.00 1.00 1.00
 Deferred delivery     4.04 (1.40–11.67) 3.03 (0.97–9.46)
 Spontaneous labour     1.04 (0.65–1.67)  
 Foul smelling discharge     0.99 (0.41–2.41)  
 Place of delivery
  Public facility      1.00
  Private facility      1.28 (0.68–2.43)
  Home      2.05 (1.23–3.40)
 Vaginal delivery      1.08 (0.52–2.23)
 Push/forceful pull done during delivery by the health provider      4.36 (2.49–7.63)
 Entangled cord around baby’s neck
  No      1.00
  Yes      1.00 (0.41–2.47)
  Do not know      0.24 (0.06–1.02)
 Breech presentation of the baby      4.33 (2.38–7.89)
  1. *Model adjusted for sex of the baby and place of residence
  2. p ≥ 0.2, hence excluded from the sequential model