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Table 5 Primary and secondary outcome measures at baseline and 12 weeks

From: The effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of strength and balance Exergames to reduce falls risk for people aged 55 years and older in UK assisted living facilities: a multi-centre, cluster randomised controlled trial

  Baseline (N = 106) 12 weeks (N = 91) Adjusted difference* 95% CI p ICC
BBS (0–56) [SD]    6.18 2.38,9.97 0.003 0.08
 Control 40.6 [13.1]) 37.6 [14.9]     
 Exergames 42.0 [13.5]) 44.6 [10.7]     
ACE III (0–100) [SD]    − 0.83 − 4.10,2.45 0.60 < 0.001
 Control 73.5 [12.1] 80.2 [12.9     
 Exergames 77.4 [15.6] 81.4 (14.2)     
7-item FES-I (7–28) [SD]    − 2.69 − 4.52, − 0.85 0.007 0.12
 Control 11.6 [4.5] 12.8 [4.8]     
 Exergames 11.0 [4.2] 9.8 [3.4]     
VAS pain scale (0–100) [%]    − 12.07 − 22.31, − 1.83 0.024 < 0.001
 Control 24.3 [26.5] 34.4 [30.5]     
 Exergames 23.9 (25.9) 21.9 [27.7]     
VAS fatigue scale (%)    − 6.63 − 20.58, 7.32 0.33 0.10
 Control 32.4 [26.6] 39.2 [28.0]     
 Exergames 37.5 [31.2] 34.6 [31.3]     
FRAT (0–5) [SD]    − 0.15 − 0.55, 0.26 0.46 0.05
 Control 2.4 [1.3] 2.4 [1.4]     
 Exergames 2.3 [1.1] 2.2 [1.2]     
5-item GDS (0–5) [SD]    0.21 − 0.24, 0.65 0.34 0.04
 Control 1.4 [1.3] 0.98 [1.1]     
 Exergames 1.2 [1.3] 1.0 [1.3]     
TUG (s) [SD]    − 0.82 − 3.62 to 1.98 0.54 < 0.001
 Control 20.4 [14.3] 20.7 [13.3]     
 Exergames 17.5 [9.0] 17.8 [10.4]     
EQ5D5L-VAS (0–100) [SD]    3.86 − 6.46 to 14.17 0.44 0.05
 Control 71.2 [18.3] 67.2 [22.7]     
 Exergames 71.2 [21.4] 70.6 [21.1]     
PASE score (0–400) [SD]    − 0.97 − 19.54 to 17.60 0.91 0.10
 Control 66.8 [38.2] 72.3 [41.5]     
 Exergames 75.1 [50.5] 77.5 [43.1]     
  1. Unless otherwise stated, means (SD) are reported
  2. BBS Berg Balance Scale, SD standard deviation, ACE III Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination–III, 7-Item FES-I 7-Item Falls Efficacy Scale-International, VAS visual analogue scale, FRAT Falls Risk Assessment Tool, GDS Geriatric Depression Scale, TUG Timed Up and Go, EQ5D5L-VAS European Quality of Life 5 Dimensions -Visual Analogue Scale, PASE Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly
  3. *Outcome (e.g. BBS) at 12 weeks adjusted for baseline value of outcome measure, region (Manchester/Glasgow) and site (random effect)