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Table 4 Logistic regression of factors associated with good pain relief at home

From: Specialist palliative care support is associated with improved pain relief at home during the last 3 months of life in patients with advanced disease: analysis of 5-year data from the national survey of bereaved people (VOICES)

  Univariate model Multivariable model
  OR 95% CI p value OR 95% CI p value
Specialist palliative care at home
 Nob 1   1
 Yes 3.26 3.21 to 3.31 < 0.001 2.67 2.62 to 2.72 < 0.001
Recorded preference for place of death
 Nob 1    1   
 Yes 2.72 2.68 to 2.77 < 0.001 1.87 1.84 to 1.90 < 0.001
Urgent care provided out of hours    < 0.001a    < 0.001a
 Not at allb 1   1
 Once or twice 1.14 1.12 to 1.17 < 0.001 0.89 0.87 to 0.91 < 0.001
 Three times or more 1.19 1.17 to 1.21 < 0.001 1.05 1.03 to 1.07 < 0.001
Cause of death
 Non-cancerb 1   1
 Cancer 1.97 1.95 to 2.00 < 0.001 1.08 1.06 to 1.10 < 0.001
Decedent’s age    < 0.001a    < 0.001a
 18–74b 1   1
 75–84 0.86 0.84 to 0.87 < 0.001 1.22 1.19 to 1.24 < 0.001
 85+ 0.78 0.77 to 0.80 < 0.001 1.46 1.43 to 1.50 < 0.001
Decedent’s gender
 Maleb 1   1
 Female 0.92 0.90 to 0.93 < 0.001 1.03 1.01 to 1.04 0.001
Deprivation (IMD)    < 0.001a    < 0.001a
 1 (most deprived)b 1   1
 2 1.18 1.15 to 1.20 < 0.001 0.98 0.96 to 1.01 0.16
 3 1.07 1.05 to 1.09 < 0.001 1.03 1.01 to 1.05 0.04
 4 1.14 1.12 to 1.17 < 0.001 1.04 1.01 to 1.06 0.003
 5 (least deprived) 1.17 1.14 to 1.19 < 0.001 1.01 0.98 to 1.03 0.54
Respondent’s relationship to decedents    < 0.001a    < 0.001a
 Son/daughterb 1   1
 Wife/husband/partner 1.68 1.66 to 1.71 < 0.001 1.50 1.47 to 1.53 < 0.001
 Other 1.05 1.03 to 1.07 < 0.001 1.13 1.10 to 1.16 < 0.001
Length of illness prior to death.    < 0.001a    < 0.001a
 > 1 yearb 1   1
 < 1 month 0.60 0.59 to 0.62 < 0.001 0.92 0.90 to 0.95 < 0.001
 > 1 month, < 6 month 0.86 0.84 to 0.87 < 0.001 0.91 0.89 to0.92 < 0.001
 > 6 month, < 1 year 1.10 1.08 to 1.12 < 0.001 1.01 0.98 to1.03 0.63
  1. OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, IMD Index of Multiple Deprivation
  2. aP value for overall effect
  3. bUsed as a reference variable