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Table 3 Association of demographic and clinical variables with overall survival for resected pancreatic cancer patients estimated by adjusted multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression

From: Development and validation of a prognostic model to predict the prognosis of patients who underwent chemotherapy and resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a large international population-based cohort study

Variable Category The US The US (white) Belgium The Netherlands Slovenia Norway
Used no.   8657 7170 979 833 109 96
HR (95% CI)1 HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI) HR (95% CI)
Year of diagnosis Per year; continuous 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.97 (0.96–0.98) 0.98 (0.95–1.01) 0.99 (0.95–1.03) 0.96 (0.89–1.03) 0.80 (0.69–0.93)
Age Per year; continuous 1.01 (1.01–1.01) 1.01 (1.01–1.01) 1.02 (1.01–1.02) 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 1.04 (1.00–1.08)
Sex Female 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Male 1.10 (1.05–1.16) 1.12 (1.06–1.18) 0.93 (0.80–1.07) 1.08 (0.91–1.29) 1.49 (0.96–2.32) 1.14 (0.67–1.95)
Tumor location Pancreas head 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Pancreas body 1.03 (0.92–1.15) 1.04 (0.92–1.17) 1.34 (0.99–1.82) 1.19 (0.69–2.04) 1.33 (0.47–3.81) 0.40 (0.05–2.98)
Pancreas tail 1.02 (0.93–1.12) 1.03 (0.93–1.14) 1.00 (0.76–1.30) 0.85 (0.57–1.26) 0.39 (0.09–1.66) 2.67 (1.09–6.53)
Other2 1.02 (0.93–1.13) 1.03 (0.93–1.15) 0.95 (0.80–1.12) 0.92 (0.65–1.38) 0.83 (0.37–1.84) 0.89 (0.30–2.65)
T stage T1 0.66 (0.57–0.75) 0.70 (0.61–0.81) 0.68 (0.47–0.97) 0.48 (0.33–0.71) 0.17 (0.04–0.72)
T2 0.86 (0.79–0.93) 0.88 (0.81–0.97) 0.89 (0.74–1.08) 1.02 (0.82–1.26) 0.70 (0.29–1.67) 0.89 (0.49–1.61)
T3 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
N stage N0 0.65 (0.61–0.69) 0.65 (0.61–0.69) 0.78 (0.66–0.92) 0.51 (0.41–0.64) 0.77 (0.40–1.51) 0.71 (0.39–1.29)
N1 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
Differentiation Well 0.60 (0.55–0.66) 0.59 (0.53–0.65) 0.68 (0.55–0.85) 0.48 (0.35–0.67) 0.57 (0.27–1.22) 0.31 (0.04–2.58)
Intermediate 0.77 (0.73–0.81) 0.78 (0.73–0.82) 0.81 (0.69–0.94) 0.61 (0.50–0.73) 0.82 (0.51–1.32) 0.93 (0.54–1.61)
Poor/undifferentiated 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference) 1.00 (reference)
  1. 1HRs were calculated by Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for year of diagnosis, age, sex, tumor location, T, N, and M stages, histology, and differentiation. In stratified analyses, the stratification factor was omitted from the model. Statistically significant HRs are shown in italics
  2. 2Other: pancreas duct, overlapping lesion, and not otherwise specified location
  3. HR hazard ratio, CI confidence interval, −, not available