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Table 4 Association of survival with potential prognostic factors available in at least one registry for resected pancreatic cancer estimated by adjusted Cox proportional hazard regression

From: Development and validation of a prognostic model to predict the prognosis of patients who underwent chemotherapy and resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a large international population-based cohort study

Variable The US Belgium The Netherlands Slovenia
n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI) n HR (95% CI)
Resection margin
 Negative 637 1.00 (reference) 51 1.00 (reference)
 Positive 291 1.36 (1.12–1.65) 34 1.54 (0.82–2.88)
Hospital type
 Non-academic 497 1.00 (reference) 510 1.00 (reference)
 Academic 608 0.89 (0.77–1.03) 472 0.79 (0.66–0.94)
Tumor size
 ≤ 2 cm 1490 1.00 (reference)
 2–3 cm 3146 1.23 (1.12–1.35)
 3–4 cm 2487 1.38 (1.25–1.52)
 4–5 cm 1229 1.60 (1.44–1.78)
 > 5 cm 938 1.56 (1.39–1.75)
T stage (8th version)
 T1 1490 0.62 (0.57–0.68)
 T2 5633 0.81 (0.76–0.87)
 T3 2167 1.00 (reference)
Positive LN number (continuous) 9426 1.05 (1.04–1.06) 974 1.07 (1.04–1.10)
N stage (8th version)
 N0 (0 positive LNs) 3180 1.00 (reference) 280 1.00 (reference)
 N1 (1–3 positive LNs) 3885 1.42 (1.33–1.51) 416 1.68 (1.33–2.13)
 N2 (≥ 4 positive LNs) 2244 1.84 (1.72–1.98) 278 2.43 (1.89–3.12)
Harvested LN number (continuous) 9484 0.99 (0.99–0.99) 959 0.99 (0.98–1.00)
LN ratio (continuous) 9138 2.60 (2.26–3.00) 945 3.15 (2.05–4.84)
ECOG score
 0 140 1.00 (reference)
 1 662 0.96 (0.76–1.20)
 ≥ 2 63 1.04 (0.73–1.47)
Resection type
 Pancreatoduodenectomy 7108 1.00 (reference) 877 1.00 (reference)
 Distal pancreatectomy 1142 1.02 (0.92–1.14) 88 1.33 (0.61–2.91)
 Total pancreatectomy 1102 1.07 (0.99–1.15) 10 0.98 (0.36–2.65)
Comorbidity
 Cardiovascular disease (yes v no) 30/119 1.33 (0.69–2.57)
 Hypertension (yes v no) 39/110 1.01 (0.59–1.75)
 Diabetes (yes v no) 33/116 1.34 (0.76–2.38)
 Pulmonary disease (yes v no) 14/135 1.96 (0.88–4.36)
Number of comorbidities
 0 52 1.00 (reference)
 1 48 1.48 (0.84–2.62)
 ≥ 2 49 1.86 (1.00–3.46)
  1. 1The main Cox proportional hazard regression models adjusted for year of diagnosis, age, sex, tumor location, T, N, and M stages, histology, and differentiation. HRs were calculated after N stage was replaced by metastatic node number (group) or lymph node ratio, or after the other investigated variables were included one by one into the main models. Statistically significant HRs are shown in italics
  2. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; LN, lymph node; ECOG, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group; −, not available