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Table 5 The most impactful LTC combinations in stratified Cox’ regression analysis for mortality, for three different multimorbidity categories (based on LTC count)

From: Relationship between multimorbidity, demographic factors and mortality: findings from the UK Biobank cohort

Top 10 most impactful LTC combinations in each category of MM count
Adjusted hazard ratios for all-cause mortality, when compared to reference group—no LTCs; number of deaths
Category LTC count = 2; N = 95,226; total number of deaths N = 3555 Category 3: LTC count = 3, N = 43,120; total number of deaths N = 2213 Category 4: LTC count = ≥ 4, N = 26,125; total number of deaths N = 2025
Cancer + bronchiectasis 9.50 (3.56–25.36); N = 4 deaths Cancer + HTN + CKD 12.27 (5.50–27.39); N = 6 deaths Cancer + HTN + CHD + epilepsy 7.75 (2.48–24.21); N = 3 deaths
Cancer + epilepsy 9.06 (5.54–14.84); N = 16 deaths HTN + CKD + diabetes 11.46 (6.29–20.89); N = 13 deaths HTN + CKD + CHD + diabetes 7.16 (4.20–12.22); N = 17 deaths
Alcohol problem + HTN 7.49 (4.23–13.28); N = 12 deaths Cancer + stroke/TIA + CHD 8.16 (3.05–21.84); N = 4 deaths Cancer + HTN + CHD + connective tissue disorders 6.84 (3.40–13.76); N = 8 deaths
Alcohol problem + depression 5.71 (2.13–15.28); N = 4 deaths HTN + CKD + CHD 8.13 (3.37–19.61); N = 5 deaths Cancer + HTN + depression + COPD 6.60 (3.70–11.78); N = 12 deaths
Epilepsy + diabetes 5.60 (1.80–17.40); N = 3 deaths Cancer + connective tissue disorders + osteoporosis 8.07 (3.34–19.47); N = 5 deaths Cancer + HTN + diabetes + COPD 6.38 (3.81–10.70); N = 16 deaths
Cancer + COPD 5.54 (3.59–8.54); N = 22 deaths Cancer + diabetes + CHD 8.01 (3.78–16.93); N = 7 deaths Cancer + HTN + depression + osteoporosis 5.87 (2.19–15.69); N = 4 deaths
Cancer + peripheral vascular disease 5.14 (1.28–20.57); N = 2 deaths CHD + COPD + diabetes 7.84 (3.23–19.01); N = 5 deaths Cancer + HTN + stroke/TIA + COPD 5.38 (2.68–10.83); N = 8 deaths
Cancer + IBD 4.98 (2.58–9.59); N = 9 deaths Cancer + HTN + IBD 5.59 (1.80–17.35); N = 3 deaths Cancer + HTN + diabetes + connective tissue disorders 5.03 (1.61–15.68); N = 16 deaths
IBD + osteoporosis 4.88 (2.02–11.75); N = 5 deaths Cancer + HTN + COPD 5.55 (3.06–10.06); N = 11 deaths HTN + diabetes + depression + stroke/TIA 4.87 (2.90–8.18); N = 19 deaths
Osteoporosis + epilepsy 4.77 (1.53–14.80); N = 3 deaths Cancer + HTN + stroke/TIA 5.43 (3.62–8.14); N = 24 deaths HTN + CHD + diabetes + stroke/TIA 4.64 (3.50–6.14); N = 63 deaths
  1. All predictors entered individually in separate models using zero LTC group as the reference category and age as time scale; adjusted for sex, socioeconomic status based on Townsend score, smoking, alcohol consumption, body mass index and physical activity levels at baseline
  2. LTC long-term condition, HTN hypertension, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, TIA transient ischaemic attack, CHD coronary heart disease, CKD chronic kidney disease, IBD inflammatory bowel disease. Connective tissue disorders myositis/myopathy, systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren’s syndrome/sicca syndrome, dermatopolymyositis, scleroderma/systemic sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthropathy, dermatomyositis, polymyositis, polymyalgia rheumatica, coeliac disease