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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of the first COPD cohort (training and test datasets)

From: Predicting COPD 1-year mortality using prognostic predictors routinely measured in primary care

Characteristic Training set Test set Died Not died
N % N % N % N %
Total 27,472 50.0 27,518 50.0 11,775 21.4 43,215 78.6
Mean age, years (SD) 69.9 (10.7) 70.0 (10.6) 76.6 (9.2) 68.1 (10.3)
Gender (males) 14,869 54.1 12,603 45.9 4933 41.9 20,353 47.1
IMD quartiles
 1 (least deprived) 5251 19.2 5254 19.1 2237 19.0 8268 19.1
 2 6926 25.3 6910 25.2 3021 25.7 10,815 25.0
 3 7314 26.7 7341 26.8 3176 27.0 11,479 26.6
 4 7891 28.8 7937 28.9 3327 28.3 12,501 28.9
Mean BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 27.5 (6.2) 27.5 (6.2) 26.0 (6.3) 28.0 (6.1)
Mean FEV1, L (SD) 1.59 (0.7) 1.59 (0.7) 1.27 (0.60) 1.67 (0.69)
GOLD stage
 1 10,117 43.1 10,231 43.5 3205 27.2 17,143 39.7
 2 7850 33.5 7883 33.5 2776 23.6 12,957 30.0
 3 4459 19.0 4407 18.8 2545 21.6 6321 14.6
 4 1031 4.4 987 4.2 886 7.5 1132 2.6
MRC score
 1 14,553 53.5 14,524 53.5 3793 32.2 25,284 58.5
 2 7011 25.8 7025 25.9 3262 27.7 10,774 24.9
 3 4497 16.5 4482 16.5 3185 27.0 5794 13.4
 4 1144 4.2 1118 4.1 1349 11.5 913 2.1
Smoking status
 Current 16,006 58.2 15,829 57.6 7272 61.8 24,563 56.8
 Ex-smoker 11,512 41.8 11,643 42.4 4503 38.2 18,652 43.2
GP treated exacerbations
 1–2 7885 28.7 7738 28.2 3483 29.6 12,140 28.1
 > 2 2230 8.1 2272 8.3 1291 11.0 3211 7.4
Hospitalised exacerbations
 1–2 1548 5.6 1609 5.9 1399 11.9 1758 4.1
 > 2 149 0.5 118 0.4 181 1.5 86 0.2
Medications
 ICS 19,252 70.0 18,932 68.9 8937 75.9 29,247 67.7
 LABA 17,638 64.1 17,456 63.5 8330 70.7 26,764 61.9
 LAMA 13,522 49.1 13,585 49.5 6636 56.4 20,471 47.4
Influenza vaccination 22,663 82.4 22,649 82.4 9984 84.8 35,328 81.7
Pneumococcal vaccination 2195 27.5 1983 25.5 1059 9.0 3119 7.2
Comorbidities
 Myocardial infarction 2310 8.4 2162 7.8 1501 12.8 2971 6.7
 Stroke 1393 5.1 1387 5.1 947 8.0 1833 15.6
 Asthma 13,442 48.9 13,198 48.0 5937 50.4 20,703 175.8
 Hypertension 13,263 48.3 13,130 47.7 6550 55.6 19,843 168.5
 Atrial fibrillation (COTE) 2157 7.9 2222 8.1 1176 10.0 2663 22.6
 Chronic kidney disease 2403 8.7 2391 8.7 2805 23.8 1989 16.9
 Dementia 428 1.6 418 1.5 424 3.6 422 3.6
 Anxiety (COTE) 6689 24.3 6715 24.4 2729 23.2 10,675 90.7
 Depression 7941 28.9 8027 29.2 3004 25.5 12,964 110.1
 Lung cancer (COTE) 1109 4.0 1055 3.8 1282 10.9 882 7.5
 Cirrhosis (COTE) 119 0.4 118 0.4 76 0.6 161 1.4
 Oesophageal cancer (COTE) 41 0.1 35 0.1 41 0.3 35 0.3
 Diabetes 4599 16.7 4742 17.2 2408 20.5 6933 58.9
 Pulmonary embolism 642 2.3 680 2.5 374 3.2 948 8.1
 Heart failure (COTE) 1825 6.6 1775 6.5 1566 13.3 2034 17.3
 Osteoporosis 2421 8.8 2392 8.7 11,480 97.5 3333 28.3
 Coronary artery disease (COTE) 5620 20.5 5469 19.9 3361 28.5 7728 65.6
 Pancreatic cancer (COTE) 5 0.0 5 0.0 < 5 < 0.1 6 0.1
 Pulmonary fibrosis (COTE) 183 0.7 177 0.6 144 1.2 216 1.8
 Breast cancer (COTE) 425 1.5 443 1.6 213 1.8 655 5.6
 Gastric/duodenal ulcers (COTE) 230 0.8 229 0.8 121 1.0 338 2.9
 Diabetes with neuropathy (COTE) 3894 14.2 4021 14.6 2073 17.6 5842 49.6
Blood tests
 CRP, mg/L mean (SD) 13.5 (29.5) 13.2 (29.6) 19.4 (36.8) 11.5 (24.5)
 Low albumin, g/L 1185 4.3 1176 4.3 1039 8.8 1322 11.2
 Hb, g/dL mean (SD) 138.5 (41.4) 138.3 (37.5) 133.7 (40.0) 139.8 (39.2)
 Low platelets, × 109/L 655 3.6 690 3.8 431 3.7 914 7.8
 High platelets, × 109/L 1374 7.5 1368 7.5 783 6.6 1959 16.6
 Creatinine, μmol/L mean (SD) 88.9 (37.7) 88.2 (34.1) 98.1 (48.5) 85.7 (30.6)
Bereavement 1337 4.9 1354 4.9 611 5.2 2080 17.7
  1. Hb haemoglobin. Comorbidities included in COTE are indicated