Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to the quartiles of ultra-processed food (UPF) consumption, NutriNet-Santé study (n = 26,730)

From: Prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and incident depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort

Baseline characteristics Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 P trenda
%UPF, range 0%–10% 10%–14% 14%–19% 19%–76%  
%UPF, median (IQR) 7% (3%) 12% (2%) 16% (2%) 23% (8%)  
n 6682 6683 6683 6682  
Age, year 51.6 ± 12.2 48.9 ± 13.4 46.6 ± 14.2 42.0 ± 15.0 < 0.0001
Sex, n (%) 0.43
 Male 1520 (22.7) 1663 (24.9) 1577 (23.6) 1590 (23.8)  
 Female 5162 (77.3) 5020 (75.1) 5106 (76.4) 5092 (76.2)
Marital status, n (%) < 0.0001
 Living alone 619 (9.2) 777 (11.6) 920 (13.8) 1332 (19.9)  
 Cohabiting 5244 (78.5) 5202 (77.9) 5093 (76.2) 4785 (71.6)
 Separated/divorced/widowed 819 (12.3) 704 (10.5) 670 (10.0) 565 (8.5)
Educational level, n (%) 0.29
 < High school diploma 1311 (19.6) 1283 (19.2) 1369 (20.5) 1226 (18.3)  
 High school diploma 986 (14.8) 964 (14.4) 983 (14.7) 1196 (17.9)
 University level 4385 (65.6) 4436 (66.4) 4331 (64.8) 4260 (63.8)
Occupational categories, n (%) < 0.0001
 Never-employed/other activity 103 (1.5) 150 (2.2) 227 (3.4) 367 (5.5)  
 Self employed 338 (5.1) 324 (4.9) 316 (4.7) 373 (5.6)
 Employee 1369 (20.5) 1479 (22.1) 1680 (25.2) 1975 (29.6)
 Intermediate profession 1984 (29.7) 2022 (30.3) 1973 (29.5) 1834 (27.4)
 Managerial staff 2888 (43.2) 2708 (40.5) 2487 (37.2) 2133 (31.9)
Household income, n (%) < 0.0001
 Not answered 664 (9.9) 587 (8.8) 654 (9.8) 744 (11.1)  
 < 1200 euros 624 (9.3) 722 (10.8) 825 (12.3) 1071 (16.0)
 1200–1800 euros 1349 (20.2) 1516 (22.7) 1623 (24.3) 1698 (25.4)
 1800–2700 euros 1668 (25.0) 1717 (25.7) 1727 (25.8) 1712 (25.6)
 ≥ 2700 euros 2377 (35.6) 2141 (32.0) 1854 (27.7) 1457 (21.8)
Residential area, n (%) 0.07
 Rural 1431 (21.4) 1444 (21.6) 1519 (22.7) 1499 (22.4)  
 Urban 5251 (78.6) 5239 (78.4) 5164 (77.3) 5183 (77.6)
Smoking status, n (%) < 0.0001
 Former smoker 2799 (41.9) 2547 (38.1) 2313 (34.6) 2071 (31.0)  
 Current smoker 721 (10.8) 809 (12.1) 771 (11.5) 905 (13.5)
 Never-smoker 3162 (47.3) 3327 (49.8) 3599 (53.9) 3706 (55.5)
Physical activity, n (%)b < 0.0001
 Low 1212 (18.1) 1473 (22.1) 1682 (25.2) 2014 (30.1)  
 Moderate 1478 (22.1) 1612 (24.1) 1660 (24.8) 1614 (24.2)
 High 3992 (59.8) 3598 (53.8) 3341 (50.0) 3054 (45.7)
Body mass indexc, n (%) 0.001
 Underweight 294 (4.4) 276 (4.1) 272 (4.1) 350 (5.2)  
 Normal weight 4517 (67.6) 4459 (66.7) 4417 (66.1) 4323 (64.7)
 Overweight 1448 (21.7) 1477 (22.1) 1522 (22.8) 1414 (21.2)
 Obesity 423 (6.3) 471 (7.1) 472 (7.0) 595 (8.9)
Chronic diseasesd, n (%) 741 (11.1) 724 (10.9) 683 (10.2) 559 (8.4) < 0.0001
Baseline CES-D, mean score 7.74 ± 5.38 7.94 ± 5.35 8.26 ± 5.46 8.90 ± 5.56 < 0.0001
  1. CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale, UPF Proportion of ultra-processed food intake
  2. Values are means ± standard deviation or numbers (percentages) as appropriate
  3. aP trend values are based on linear contrast or Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests
  4. bPhysical activity was classified as low (< 30 min of physical activity; equivalent to brisk walking/day) or moderate/high physical activity (≥ 30 min of physical activity; equivalent to brisk walking/day)
  5. cBody mass index was classified as underweight (BMI < 18.5), normal weight (18.5 ≥ BMI < 25), overweight (25 ≥ BMI < 30) or obese (BMI ≥ 30)
  6. dIncident cases of cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular diseases