Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 3 Association between ultra-processed food intake and incident depressive symptoms, NutriNet-Santé study

From: Prospective association between ultra-processed food consumption and incident depressive symptoms in the French NutriNet-Santé cohort

  Quartile 1 Quartile 2 Quartile 3 Quartile 4 P trend Continuousa P b
UPF, range 0%–10% 10%–14% 14%–19% 19%–76%    
UPF, median (IQR) 7% (3%) 12% (2%) 16% (2%) 23% (8%)    
n 6682 6683 6683 6682   26,730  
Number of cases 491 459 557 714   2221  
Person years 21,597 21,097 20,468 19,918   83,080  
Model 1c 1 (ref) 0.90 (0.79; 1.02) 1.07 (0.94; 1.21) 1.31 (1.16; 1.47) < 0.0001 1.23 (1.17; 1.29) < 0.0001
Model 2d 1 (ref) 0.91 (0.80; 1.04) 1.09 (0.96; 1.23) 1.30 (1.15; 1.47) < 0.0001 1.21 (1.15; 1.27) < 0.0001
Model 3e 1 (ref) 0.91 (0.80; 1.04) 1.08 (0.95; 1.23) 1.29 (1.13; 1.47) < 0.0001 1.22 (1.16; 1.29) < 0.0001
Model 4f 1 (ref) 0.92 (0.81; 1.04) 1.09 (0.97; 1.24) 1.31 (1.16; 1.48) < 0.0001 1.21 (1.15; 1.27) < 0.0001
Model 5g 1 (ref) 0.88 (0.77; 1.00) 1.00 (0.88; 1.13) 1.13 (1.00; 1.28) 0.01 1.14 (1.09; 1.20) < 0.0001
Model 6h 1 (ref) 0.88 (0.78; 1.00) 1.06 (0.94; 1.20) 1.27 (1.13; 1.44) < 0.0001 1.21 (1.15; 1.27) < 0.0001
Model 7i 1 (ref) 0.86 (0.76; 0.98) 1.00 (0.88; 1.13) 1.13 (1.00; 1.28) 0.01 1.15 (1.09; 1.21) < 0.0001
  1. Values are hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals).CDS Cognitive Difficulties Scale; CES-D Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale; IQR interquartile range; UPF proportion of ultra-processed food intake
  2. aHazard ratios for 10% increase in the proportion of ultra-processed food intake
  3. bP for continuous variable
  4. cAdjusted for age, sex, and body mass index
  5. dAdjusted for all variables in model 1 + marital status, educational level, occupational categories, household income per consumption unit, residential area, number of 24-h dietary records, inclusion month, energy intake without alcohol, alcohol intake, smoking status, and physical activity (main model)
  6. eAdjusted for all variables in model 2 + dietary patterns derived from the factor analysis (‘Healthy’ and ‘Western’ dietary pattern) and intakes of lipids, sodium, and carbohydrates
  7. fAdjusted for all variables in model 2 + health events during follow-up (cancer, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular events)
  8. gAdjusted for all variables in model 2 + use of antidepressants during follow-up and baseline CES-D score
  9. hAdjusted for all variables in model 2 + CDS score
  10. iAdjusted for all variables in model 2 + use of antidepressants during follow-up, baseline CES-D score, and CDS score